88Views & Citations
There is no comprehensive national screening program in India at present. A lifetime screening prevalence of 29.8% among women aged 30-49 has been reported from a nationally representative survey. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has recommended the Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) screening method for women aged 30-65 with a 5-year interval since 2016 as per the operational framework. At present, there does not appear to be a single comprehensive cervical cancer program at the national level in India. Some provisions for cervical cancer prevention and treatment are included within the documents related to the aforementioned policies and strategies .
METHODS AND MATERIALS
The study was carried out among participants of an outreach health camp organized free of cost for women members of families of a group of employees. The samples were sexually active women in the age group of above 30 yrs. The sample size was 573 and the sampling technique was purposive sampling. The exclusion criteria were women having menstruation during the time of camp and pregnant women and those unwilling to undergo the examination. The risk assessment was done by per speculum visual examination of the vagina and cervix with strict asepsis. PAP Smear was also taken simultaneously. The study design was cross sectional descriptive design. .
The Per speculum visual examination of Cervix was carried out on 573 women above the age of 35 years out of which 130 i.e. 22.6% women were found to have abnormal visual findings. 02 i.e. 0.3% were having frank growth. 20 had cervix which was found bleeding to touch. 45 were found to have cervical erosion. 02 had cervical polyp and 10 had mucoid discharge.
The results of the present study show that out of total sample 22.6% of women above the age of 35 years were found to be having likelihood of predisposition to risk of cervical cancer based on the condition of their cervix. This was just a fraction of population assessed, with this it indicates that a substantial number of women are living with predisposition to the risk of cervical cancer and if these predisposing conditions not corrected may become reason for developing cervical cancer among these women. The best preventive measure would be regular screening of these women to keep a watch for any harmful changes. A Multi-centric study done Omire et al among women attending a reproductive health clinic at the largest national hospital in Kenya. A total of 187 women aged 18 to 50 years attending the reproductive clinic at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital in Nairobi, of the 187 women studied, 90 (48.1%) had one or more infection associated with bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, cervicitis or inflammation of the cervix of unknown cause which was almost double the percentage of abnormal visual findings on cervical examination. According to study published in Indian Journal of Medical and Pediatric Oncology, done Bobdey, Sathwara, Jain & Balasubramanian . The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively.
- Beining MR (2012) Screening of cervical cancer: An exploratory study of urban woman in Tamil Nadu, India. Lowa Res Online pp: 131-140.
- World Health Organization (2006) Reproductive Health Indicators. Available online at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43185/924156315X_eng.pdf;jsessionid=DCE693772AD96384639267C2DDADA4AF?sequence=1
- UNFPA (2021) Cancer council “Cervical cancer elimination country review and road map for action’’.
- Bobdey S, Sathwara J, Jain A, Subramaniam BG (2016) Burden of cervical cancer rolls of screening in India. Ind J Med Paed Onco 37(4): 278-285.
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