Research Article
Predisposition of Women to Cervical Cancer- A Study to Assess the Prevalence
Reena Ojha, Gita S* and Meenakshi
Corresponding Author: Gita S, MSc Med-Surg Nursing, College of Nursing CHCC, India.
Received: October 17, 2022; Revised: December 02, 2022; Accepted: December 05, 2022 Available Online: December 19, 2022
Citation: Ojha R, Gita S & Meenakshi. (2022) Predisposition of Women to Cervical Cancer- A Study to Assess the Prevalence. J Womens Health Safety Res, 6(3): 305-306.
Copyrights: ©2022 Ojha R, Gita S & Meenakshi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Cervical Cancer is the fourth most frequent Cancer among women. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has recommended the Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) screening method for women aged 30-65 with a 5-year interval since 2016 as per the operational framework. The samples of the present study were sexually active women in the age group of above 30 years. The sample size was 573 and the sampling technique was purposive sampling. The study subjects underwent cervical health assessment by per speculum visual examination of the vagina and cervix with strict asepsis. PAP smear was also taken simultaneously. 130 i.e. 22.6% women were found to have abnormal visual findings and 02 were having frank growth. 20 had cervix which was found bleeding to touch. 45 were found to have cervical erosion. 02 had cervical polyp and 10 had mucoid discharge.

Keywords: Predisposition, Cervical cancer, Prevalence
INTRODUCTION

Being a man or a woman has a significant impact on health. This could be due to biological differences leading to vulnerability towards diseases and also due to diverse biological roles to be fulfilled by women from menarche till menopause. This is also affected by the societal norms of few societies where women are underprivileged and discriminated due to gender-based biases. Women face diverse and unique health concerns across the lifespan which may affect their overall health and wellness. According to the key facts given by WHO about cancer among women on 22 Feb 2022, worldwide, cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women with an estimated 604 000 new cases in 2020. Of the estimated 342,000 deaths from cervical cancer in 2020, about 90% of these occur in low- and middle-income countries. In India, Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer in women with 96922 new cases (14.7 per 100,000 women) and 60,078 deaths (9.2 per 100000 women) in 2018. It was predicted that without any intervention, a total of 5,774738 women in India will die from Cervical cancer Cancer by 2070 and 13,182,465 by 2120 [1].

BACKGROUND

There is no comprehensive national screening program in India at present. A lifetime screening prevalence of 29.8% among women aged 30-49 has been reported from a nationally representative survey. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has recommended the Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) screening method for women aged 30-65 with a 5-year interval since 2016 as per the operational framework. At present, there does not appear to be a single comprehensive cervical cancer program at the national level in India. Some provisions for cervical cancer prevention and treatment are included within the documents related to the aforementioned policies and strategies [2].

METHODS AND MATERIALS

The study was carried out among participants of an outreach health camp organized free of cost for women members of families of a group of employees. The samples were sexually active women in the age group of above 30 yrs. The 
sample size was 573 and the sampling technique was purposive sampling. The exclusion criteria were women having menstruation during the time of camp and pregnant women and those unwilling to undergo the examination. The risk assessment was done by per speculum visual examination of the vagina and cervix with strict asepsis. PAP Smear was also taken simultaneously. The study design was cross sectional descriptive design. [3].

RESULTS

The Per speculum visual examination of Cervix was carried out on 573 women above the age of 35 years out of which 130 i.e. 22.6% women were found to have abnormal visual findings. 02 i.e. 0.3% were having frank growth. 20 had cervix which was found bleeding to touch. 45 were found to have cervical erosion. 02 had cervical polyp and 10 had mucoid discharge.

DISCUSSION

The results of the present study show that out of total sample 22.6% of women above the age of 35 years were found to be having likelihood of predisposition to risk of cervical cancer based on the condition of their cervix. This was just a fraction of population assessed, with this it indicates that a substantial number of women are living with predisposition to the risk of cervical cancer and if these predisposing conditions not corrected may become reason for developing cervical cancer among these women. The best preventive measure would be regular screening of these women to keep a watch for any harmful changes. A Multi-centric study done Omire et al among women attending a reproductive health clinic at the largest national hospital in Kenya. A total of 187 women aged 18 to 50 years attending the reproductive clinic at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital in Nairobi, of the 187 women studied, 90 (48.1%) had one or more infection associated with bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, cervicitis or inflammation of the cervix of unknown cause which was almost double the percentage of abnormal visual findings on cervical examination. According to study published in Indian Journal of Medical and Pediatric Oncology, done Bobdey, Sathwara, Jain & Balasubramanian [4]. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively.

  1. Beining MR (2012) Screening of cervical cancer: An exploratory study of urban woman in Tamil Nadu, India. Lowa Res Online pp: 131-140.
  2. World Health Organization (2006) Reproductive Health Indicators. Available online at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43185/924156315X_eng.pdf;jsessionid=DCE693772AD96384639267C2DDADA4AF?sequence=1
  3. UNFPA (2021) Cancer council “Cervical cancer elimination country review and road map for action’’.
  4. Bobdey S, Sathwara J, Jain A, Subramaniam BG (2016) Burden of cervical cancer rolls of screening in India. Ind J Med Paed Onco 37(4): 278-285.