Research Article
Personality Profile, Aggression and Alcohol Use among Theyyam Performers in North Kerala
Bijisha P* and Divya Prabha K
Corresponding Author: Bijisha P, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 670702, Kerala, India.
Received: November 21, 2020; Revised: December 29, 2020; Accepted: December 27, 2020 Available Online: March 08, 2021
Citation: Bijisha P & Prabha KD. (2021) Personality Profile, Aggression and Alcohol Use among Theyyam Performers in North Kerala. J Psychiatry Psychol Res 5(2): 504-523.
Copyrights: ©2021 Bijisha P & Prabha KD. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Share :
  • 456

    Views & Citations
Theyyam is one of the famous forms of worship practice in Kannur and Kasargod districts of north Kerala. It is a magico-religious observance which is highly conditioned by myth, says Damodaran. Continues trainings in the ritual may have an effect on the development of personality. Alcohol is part of theyyam performance. Several Theyyam performers of the previous few generations were alcoholics. So, it is more likely to have an effect on their personality and to develop aggressive behavior. In some theyyam, performer also do aggressive acts. The aim of the present study is to find relationship between Personality Profile, Level of Aggression and Severity of Alcohol Use. The following tools were used for the study: Socio-Demographic data sheet, 16 personality factor questionnaire, aggression inventory and alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT). Pearson r correlation and Spearman rank correlation were done for data analysis. The findings of the study suggested that there is an association between personality profile, aggression and alcohol use among theyyam performers. Psychologists and counselors can predict the occurrence of behavioral problems among theyyam performance by identifying the kind of attribution they possess. So, by providing proper training they can prevent the occurrence of behavioral problems.
 
Keywords: Personality profile, Aggression, Alcohol use, Theyyam, Theyyam performers
INTRODUCTION
Theyyam is one of the famous forms of worship practice in Kannur and Kasargod districts of north Kerala. It has been represented in many ways, as folk genre, art, festival, ritual, performance and dance. Theyyam is an abbreviation of ‘Theyyattam’ a Malayalam word, which means ‘dance of the God' where ‘Deyvam’ means God and ‘Attam’ means dance. Persons like Kurup [1, 2] approaches theyyam as a tool used by the low castes against the oppression and suppression faced by them. Blackburn [3] explores theyyam as one among the cults of folk Hinduism.
Theyyam divisions can be focused on folks and traditions. Theyyam like Pottan, Gulikan, Chamundi, Kurathi and so on manifest folk origins while theyyams like Vishumurthi, Makkoppothi, and Daivathar demonstrate the history of Sanskrit. We may infer from the description of the Theyyams that most of them are of totemic roots. Durkheim and Swain [4] suggest that totemism is the most primitive form of worship.
Theyyam remembers the cultural wealth of past decades. There are 39 forms of theyyam is shown in all over Kerala. In earlier days people worshiped nature as god. The aim behind their worship was the collection of food, relief from illnesses and so on. Earth, Sky, fire, agriculture, Cattles are the fundamental part of their existence. They believed that the food and water are the gift of goddess, and they want   to celebrate the festivals to propitiate the goddess for this purpose, they arrange the special kinds of songs and dances. Many tribes have adopted dance as the medium of Worship of their divine power. They pray to the god to eradicate Cholera and Small pox and for that they perform the ritual art called theyyam [5]. Theyyam performers are from the lower sections of society and have been under higher caste control like Brahmins and Nair’s, and so on. They are untouchables in the feudal society but in this occasion 
the higher caste was worshiped them. Muslim theyyams are also performed [6]. Normally the theyyam performing castes are Vaṇṇan, Malayan, pulayan, Thiyan and so on [7]. Theyyam dance invokes the presence of the deity in the body of the dancer. It is 40 min to 4 hour’s dance performance and is completely devotional. Artists perform with necessary fasting and preparation as the whole dance is a dedication to God. The performer become live- god throughout the process [8].
Theyyam is not merely a dance but a practice with twin elements of art and religious devotion. There are different rituals associated with the dance with different practices like worship of spirit, ancestors, hero’s, trees, animals, serpents, Goddesses of the disease and the village deity [9, 10]. The performer invokes the deity and dances while the singer or artist also recites poems in praise of the deity or narrate the story relevant to the deity (also known as thottam).
The dancers must be rigorously trained on the characteristic traits of the deity they play. It is important that dancers approach the divine trance, physically and spiritually in which the theyyam is performed. The performance is usually taking place in temples or in ancestral home. The god is represented by sword, carved stones, a stool, and a piece of wood or mask. The performers wear exotic dresses and elaborate head gear. Theyyam have the ability to create an atmosphere that can expose deep into the faith and mind of the people. The costume of the theyyams is also very special. The costume consists of pattu, vitanathara (kanṇimundu, cirakuduppu, veḷumban, etc. It is an unwritten rule that nothing but natural things is to be used in theyyams [11].
It is believed that this holy event would provide prosperity for society and the family. Most people in North Malabar, regardless of their caste and class, participate in the worship of theyyam. The theyyam performer does not simply enact a character but rather manifest and embody a chosen deity in a trance or ‘possessed’ state.
Vadakkiniyil [12] points out the body of the Theyyam performer becomes the medium for the manifestation of the deity or God through dance, dialogue, narrative, songs and ritualistic acts. Theyyam is a high-excitement custom that permits performers just as onlookers to be instigated with profoundly charged feelings, remarkable emotions, sensations and perception. Xygalatas [13] noted that the characteristics of tension, physical exhaustion, sensory overload, repetitive music, dancing and fasting and the use of psychoactive drugs produce a changed state of consciousness, resulting in specific brain responses.
Toddy or alcohol is a part of theyyam performance. There are some theyyams which drink alcohol. Alcohol something that is offered to several different Theyyams during the performance. The performer drinks alcohol without any restrictions. During the season they work day and night continuously without eating and drinking. So, the performers overcome this pressure taking alcohol. So, the alcohol become part of their day-to-day life. Many a times, this habit picks up in the lives of the performers and turns them into increased consumption of alcohol. Several Theyyam performers of the previous few generations were alcoholics [14].
The alcohol may lead to aggressive personality. In theyyam also they went through certain transformation and transportation stages. That is transformation as a god and the transportation of original self.  The performers also do aggressive acts. The theyyam demands from the performer a total sacrifice on his part. The theyyam demands a total sacrifice from the performer. The actor has inflicted self-injury on his body in some theyyam performances. He injures his head, often blood flowing out, hops into the flames, knives through his mouth, and sticks his hands into the boiling oil. This masochistic expression can be traced back to primordial tribal practices. Certain Theyyams fix the burning torches on its body, enduring the terrible heat throughout and walk on fire [15].
There is a fierce ritual which is reminding of human renunciation in ‘Kali pooja’. In one particular theyyam the ritual is ‘uchabali’, symbolic of human renunciation. Here, the performer's arm and leg would be tightly tied, and the iron needle would pierce these parts and the blood would spill. This blood shower takes place at noon time. During action, the performer may turn unconscious with the rapid loss of blood. He would be carried away at this point like a dead body, with a new cloth-covering. This is enacted like a human sacrifice.
Theyyam Performance is a unique art form, so the personality of the performer can be different from the normal people. Studies on personality of theyyam Performers are very limited. Personality is characteristic way of thinking, acting, and feeling. Personality accepts moods, emotions and beliefs and communicates itself explicitly in interactions with others. Personality is a pattern of relatively persistent traits and unique qualities which give a person's behavior both consistency and individuality. Traits contribute to the human behavioral differences, behavioral continuity over time, and behavioral stability across situations.
Personality is the one that give uniqueness to the individual. It is widely accepted that an individual's personality is formed in conjunction with a series of life experiences as a result of those characteristics we inherited. In order to interact directly with the environment, people use their cognitive and physical abilities as tools. Experience via trial and error coupled with feedback forms our habitual methods used to achieve our goals. This process eventually shapes people’s personalities. As I said earlier theyyam performers life experience is different. And they have also this inherited component. Here middle adult hood participants are taking for the study. Because they are more experienced and they can provide more information than early adulthood or late adulthood.
In this study sixteen personality factor is used to measure theyyam performer’s personality. And this self-report personality questionnaire was developed by Cattell [16]. Cattell [16] described personality as that which allows a person to predict what he will do in a given situation. Source Traits are the underlying basic factors of an individual’s personalities [16]. Based on the concept of source trait he constructed 16 PF inventory.
The role of alcohol use in theyyam shows that, there is high chances for becoming alcohol addicts because of the strain they have during each performance. In the season time, every performer has 10 to 11 Theyyam performance. For each performance they are spending 24-48 hrs. So, this strain and pressure may lead to increase use of alcohol. There are lot of studies which shows the link between personality factors and alcohol misuse. Personality factors like anxiety and introversion are high among alcoholic men [17].
Multidimensional scales of personality give a more comprehensive view of personality traits associated with patterns of substance misuse or abuse. These commonly used measures include, Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, (MMPI)and measures of the five-factor model of personality (i.e., the Big Five) etc. [18-20]. The Big Five factors highly linked to alcohol use disorders are low conscientiousness and high neuroticism [21-25].
Alwin [26] said that personality, by its nature, is malleable early in life and grows increasingly persistent or rigid with age. McCrae [27] conducted a longitudinal study on personality continuity and found that, in adulthood, personality does not change much. Olweus [28] examined the results of 16 studies that found aggression to be characteristic of a highly stable personality. In fact, Olweus found the degree of consistency over time in aggressive behavior to be much greater than has been maintained by proponents of a situational behavior position in the personality field. In most of the “theyyam” aggression or aggressive acts have major role. Performers show aggression as part of their performance.
Human aggression is any behavior directed toward another individual that is carried out with the intent to cause harm. The offender must therefore assume that the action would damage the target and encourage the target to stop the behavior [29-32]. Personal factors like personality traits, attitudes, and genetic predisposition also cause aggression [33].
It is commonly assumed that the expression of physical aggression is related to the ingestion of alcohol. Medina [34] points out that under the influence of alcohol "the liberation of deep features of the personality frequently awakens aggressive tendencies". So, the theyyam performer’s alcohol use can lead to anger during the performance or after the performance. The will also may affect their family life as well as their social life. But we cannot generalize this to everyone unless and until there is clear evidence regarding this.
In this study sixteen personality factor questionnaire, AUDIT screening tool, aggression inventory will be used to measure personality profile, alcohol use and severity of aggression among theyyam performer.
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY
Theyyam is a popular ritualistic folk-dance form of North Malabar supported by a vast literature and folk songs. It invokes the presence of the deity in the body of the dancer. The performance can be of the thandava (masculine) or lasya (feminine) style according to the character of the deity.
The performer turned to a divine being while in performance. The performer transform himself to an extraordinary realm of unworldliness. But he is aware of the role he is to perform. But he is not aware that he is aware. The 'flow' in the actor is there, during performance the mind is aware of the surroundings and action. At end of the theyyam performance, the performer removes the head gear and transport to his original self. The transformation and transportation are acquired through continuous training. Performers also do aggressive act as a part of their performance. So, there is a need for the study to find personality profile and severity of aggression among theyyam performer.
Toddy is taken by certain theyyams. During their ‘vritha’ also they are allowed to drink alcohol. Theyyam can last more than 12 or even 24 hours during which performers may not be able to take food or drink water, putting a lot of strain on his body. During the season, he works continuously day and night for weeks together leading to stress. Many artistes take alcohol to overcome the strain which has a detrimental effect on his physical as well as mental health. So, the alcohol dependence is very common in theyyam performers.
There has been currently no research conducted in this area to study the personality profile, Aggression and alcohol use among theyyam performers. However, there are studies that shows alcohol use effecting the physical health of the theyyam performers.so this study is mainly focusing on how psychological factors leading to alcohol dependence among theyyam performance.
RESEARCH PROBLEM
Does personality profile and level of aggression have any effect on alcohol dependence among theyyam performers?
 
Objectives
The objectives of the present study are the following:
  1. To study the personality profile, severity of alcohol use and level of aggression of theyyam performers
  2. To find out the relationship between alcohol use and aggression in theyyam performers
  3. To find out the relationship between personality profile and alcohol use in theyyam performers
  4. To find out the relationship between personality profile and aggression among theyyam performers
Hypotheses
To meet the objectives of the study the following hypotheses have been put forward:
H1: There will be a significant relationship between level of aggression and severity of alcohol use.
H2: There will be a significant relationship between personality profile and severity of alcohol use.
H3: There will be a significant relationship between personality profile and level of aggression
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Review of Literature will help the researcher to identify previous studies conducted in this area, feasibility of the study and the research gap. The following are some of the previous studies conducted in the variables; Personality profile, Aggression, and Alcohol use.
Ahammed [35] noted that theyyam's theme explored in the literature is the symbolic sense of' empowerment,'' dissent' and' protest' which theyyam assume as the performer represents a chosen deity. The ritual thus becomes the outlet for the collective frustration, indignation, and disappointment that lower-communities people have experienced over the years.
Raji and Vennala [36] mentioned that during this ritual can people can see how the primitive man transforms his life experience into metaphysical thought through rites and rituals, and in a specific form, he describes his abstract visions, attributing multiple forms to them. They also mentioned that some of the theyyams are wild and terrific, thirsting for animal blood. Alcohol is the offering to be made to some of them.
Dalrymple [37] once visited Malabar and asked one of the theyyam performer his experience of being as a theyyam. The man said that “You become the deity. You lose all fear. Even your voice changes. The God comes alive and take over. You are just the vehicle the medium. In the Trance, it's the god who speaks, and all the acts are the acts of God- feeling thinking and speaking. The dancer is an ordinary man, but it is a spiritual being. It only stops when the address is removed” [37].
Monteiro and Wall [38] said that traditional rituals involving elements of dance and theatre play a key role in reducing psychological distress. But increase use of alcohol among theyyam performers leads to many problems in physical as well as psychological health. 22% of theyyam performers are suffering from alcohol addictions [14].
Alcohol can have many negative effects. For example, the severe health impacts of alcohol consumption can include sleep problems, nausea, hangover and accidental injury [39]. Heavy alcohol use, even on one occasion, can lead to individuals with fetal alcohol syndrome [40] and violent or abusive conduct [39]. The effects of chronic high alcohol use might include mouth damage, liver, pancreas, heart and brain dysfunction, also sexual dysfunction, depression and inability to work [41,42]. These alcohol problems are very common, among adults [43].
There are many negative effects of alcohol consumption, personality researchers have examined various personality variables as possible causes of alcohol problems, such as sensation seeking and impulsivity [44, 45]. Personality traits associated with impulsivity influence alcohol use during emerging adults. Urgency and sensation seeking were consistently related to alcohol use. Alcohol use is also associated with impulsiveness, problem drinking, and risky sexual practices, aggression, and multiple drug use [47-50].
The association between personality and addictive alcohol consumption behaviors is typically investigated in studies associated with alcohol for example, patients with alcohol misuse and reliance or in children of heavy drinkers. Concentrates in teenagers and youthful grown-ups have depicted that the IMP group is the most unmistakable in alcohol use advancement. Sensation seeking, novelty seeking, impulsivity, low conscientiousness or low agreeableness have been identified with the beginning and utilization of alcohol and different medications, particularly lawful medications, in various sociocultural settings [51-57]. In the recent years, the Five-Factor Model of personality has become popular because individual accounts appear to demonstrate that these five factors explain much of personality variance [27]. The model has also been found to predict many important types of outcomes such as career achievements and longevity [58, 59]. Personality type of alcoholics using objective inventories shows that alcoholics have authority conflict, poor control of hostility, impulsivity, aggressiveness. And they have personality disorders identified with substance use disorders are antisocial, borderline, and schizotypal personality disorders [60]. Alcohol use was associated with low conscientiousness, low agreeableness, and high neuroticism [61]. Park [62] noted that, individuals tend to self-select into
environments that are compatible with their own character or personality. This is evidenced in several areas of human behaviors e.g., peer relationships [63]. Notably, as individuals are inclined to act on the basis of their existing characteristics, selection processes based on personality may be especially likely during transitional periods that present a host of choices [64].
Personality traits are thought to influence the motivation of behavior in general, they are also expected to relate to specific alcohol-related motivations, especially motives that are directly related to internal affect regulation. Several theorists have suggested that motivations act as a proximal influence on substance use through which more distal factors, such as personality, are mediated [25, 65-68].
Nevid [69] conducted a study on personality profiles of patients with alcohol use disorder and opioid use disorder in an inpatient treatment setting. Results shows that alcohol use disorder patients showed elevated scores on alcohol Problems. A study on alcohol Use and Personality Change in Middle and Older Adulthood shows that, the decreases in extraversion to be attenuated for individuals categorized as light-to-moderate drinkers at baseline, whereas decreases in Conscientiousness were attenuated by having experienced alcohol dependence symptoms.
The personality difference showed a relation with changes in the amount of alcohol consumed at follow-up [70]. The twin studies on alcohol use and alcohol use disorder suggests that genetic risk factors are shared between, alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis misuse [71].
Many researches shown that DSM-IV personality disorders especially antisocial personality and borderline personality are linked with alcohol use and alcohol use disorder [72-78]. McGue [79] found that alcoholics scored significantly higher on all indicators of negative emotionality and consistently lower on all indicators of constraint. Nerviano and Gross [17] conducted a study to find out the number of personality type of alcoholics using 16 personality factors. They found 2 personality types as the first type was best described in terms of high anxiety and introversion, whereas the second seemed characterized by dependency and conformity.
Aggressive behaviors were reported most frequently in men, followed by delinquent behaviors, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking [80]. Wennberg and Bohman [81] assessed the temperamental characteristics of children and associated them with different patterns of adult alcohol consumption. Aggressive characteristics at age 4 predicted to be poisonous at age 25 while extravert/outgoing characteristics, such as aggression and poor orderliness, predicted lifetime alcohol problems at age 36. Similar studies conducted by Pulkkinen and Pitkänen [82] determined in Finland that aggressiveness on the age of 8 predicted an increased risk for alcoholism 18 to 20 years later for males.
Based on the findings, the researchers concluded that, under the acute influence of alcohol and males in the high-provocation state and individuals who tend to promote antisocial and impulsive externalizing activities appear to be at increased risk for violence, aggressive personality traits, and subjective intoxication, were successful predictors of physical aggression but in the low-provocation situations, only aggressive personality traits predicted aggression [83].
Chermack and Giancola [84] conducted a study to find the relation between alcohol and aggression using a bio psychosocial conceptualization approach. The results shows that alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are related to violence, but that the alcohol-aggression relation is highly complex. The bio psychosocial conceptualization suggests that alcohol-related aggression is a multi-determined phenomenon influenced by the interaction of developmental risk factors, alcohol-related factors, psychological factors, and contextual influences.
Taylor and Gammon [85] noted that the expression of physical aggression was related to the quantity of alcohol ingested. The high dose of alcohol appeared to instigate and the low dose of alcohol appeared to inhibit aggressive responding, Interpersonal judgments were also influenced by the type and dose of alcohol consume.
SUMMARY
The relationship between aggression and alcohol use has been discussed by a wide range of researchers. Many of the studies found out that physical aggression and violence are more related to alcohol use in general population. That is high levels of alcohol predicted aggression among general population. The researchers also found many personality variables related to alcohol consumption, such as impulsivity and sensation seeking. Personality type of alcoholics using objective inventories shows that alcoholics have authority conflict, poor control of hostility, impulsivity, aggressiveness. Theyyam performers also consume alcohol as a part of performance. There are not many studies conducted on theyyam performers.
METHOD
The present study focuses on personality profile, aggression and alcohol use among theyyam performers. Present investigation aims to study the relationship between personality profile, aggression and alcohol use. Quantitative research method is used for the study. According to Aliaga and Gunderson [86] quantitative research is explaining the phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using mathematically based methods. This chapter details the methods that were used to collect data and analyze data needed to address the research questions. The topics included in this chapter are research design, sample and sampling, inclusion and exclusion criteria, tools, pilot study, procedure, data analysis and ethical consideration.
RESEARCH DESIGN
The research design that will be used in this study is descriptive correlational design. A correlational design is one in which two or more variables are measured and the statistical relationship between them is assessed.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING
Snowball sampling is used to collect data for the study. Snowball sampling is a technique of a building list or a sample of special population by using an initial set of its members as informants. The sample size is 60 (Mean age of the participants =50.72). The sample include Theyyam performers from both Kannur and Kasargod districts where theyyam is more profoundly seen. The sample is selected on the basis of inclusion-exclusion criteria.
Inclusion criteria
  • Individuals within the age range of 45 -65 years (this age group being the Middle Adulthood age range.)
  • Individuals who have primary education. Thus, the sample should be literate enough to fill in the questionnaire.
Exclusion criteria
  • Illiterate theyyam performers
  • The performers who are mentally ill
Operational Definition
Personality profile
Personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics which give a person's behavior both consistency and individuality. Traits contribute to the human behavioral differences, behavioral continuity over time, and behavioral reliability across contexts.
Aggression
Physical or verbal behavior intended to cause haram, the definition excluding unintentional harm, such as accidents or sidewalks collisions, unavoidable side effect of helping someone (dental treatments or assisted suicide).
Alcohol use
Alcohol use involves drinking all kinds of alcohol or related parallel substances on frequently or infrequently.
Tools
Based on the nature and scope of the study, the following research instruments were used to collect data. All standardized scales were used in the study.
Socio-demographic Performa
The socio demographic information of the sample was collected, using datasheet prepared by the investigator. It included information such as Name, Age, Educational qualification, marital status, family type, Socio-economic status, years of experience in the field, use of alcohol and other substance, diagnosis of physical or mental illness.
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) is a quantitative measure of normal range personality that has been shown to be useful in a various setting where a thorough assessment of the entire person is needed. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire is a self-report personality test that was developed by Cattell [16] over several decades of empirical research. The 16PF offers a measure of normal behavior and can also be used as a clinical resource by psychologists and other mental health professionals to aid in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders as well as in the preparation of prognosis and therapies.
The 16PF instrument offers a normal-range measurement of anxiety, adjustment and emotional stability for clinicians. In this research Form C is used for personality assessment. For the Primary Factor scales over a two-week and two-month period the mean test-retest reliability (aka consistency coefficient) is 0.80 and 0.70 respectively and behavioral problems. Validity studies published in the technical manual and study literature provide substantial evidence of the construct and criterion-related validity of the 16PF primary and global scales.
Many studies find strong correlations between trait scores for 16PF scales and those from other well-known inventory inventories of personalities (i.e. the Personality Research Form the California Psychological Inventory, and the NEO Five Factor Inventory). Usha Seetharam changed form C of the 16 PF in English with the language being made simpler to fit Indian population than the original form. In 1989, Rema and Anita adapted the questionnaire to Malayalam. In this study 16 PF Form C Malayalam is used. When administered to the present sample, the Cronbach's alpha for 16 PF questionnaire was found to be 0.838.
Aggression Inventory (AI)
The Aggression Inventory was proposed by Glaude [87]. This 30-item instrument is designed to assess various aggressive traits. Respondents rate the items on a five-point scale, ranging from “does not apply at all to me" to "applies exactly to me.” The Aggression Inventory consists of four subscales: physical aggression, verbal aggression, impulsive/impatient, and avoidance. Because of possible gender differences in many aspects of aggression, scores on the AI must be considered separately for women and men. The reliability of Aggression Inventory has fair to good internal consistency. For men the alpha coefficient was Physical aggression = 0.82; verbal aggression =0.72; impulsive/ impatient =0.76 and 0.76 for avoidance. Validity of the Aggression Inventory subscale has been supported by men and women. The Cronbach’s alpha for Aggression inventory when administered to the present sample was found to be 0.807.
Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) by the World Health Organization is a very reliable and easy screening tool that is prone to early detection of unsafe and high risk (or hazardous and harmful) drinking. It has three questions on alcohol consumption (1 to 3), three questions on drinking behavior and dependence (4 to 6) and four questions on the consequences or problems related to drinking (7 to 10). The Supplementary Questions do not belong to the AUDIT and are not scored. They provide valuable psychological information related to the client's understanding of whether they have an alcohol problem and their confidence that change is possible in the short-term.
Ten studies were found which assessed the AUDIT's internal consistency. The mean value of Chronbach's alpha was.80 in those trials, suggesting a strong internal consistency. The AUDIT presented excellent discriminatory validity of .98.
The Cronbach’s alpha for AUDIT screen tool when administered to the present sample was found to be 0.591.
PROCEDURE
Translated the English version of aggression inventory and AUDIT screening tool scale into Malayalam. Malayalam translation of 16 PF form C was available. It was translated by Rema and Anita. A Pilot study done in order to find the reliability and validity of the questionnaires, and availability of the participants. An informed consent form given to all the participants before collecting data. The individual participants contacted and briefed about the common theme of the research, and those who agree to participate for the research were requested to fill a Google form. Each participant was filled with personal information forms, Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire Form C, aggression Inventory and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The participants were given full freedom to quit the study at any point of the time.
Analysis of data
The data was entered into an excel file for review after the data collection was completed. The data was transferred to IBM SPSS ver.21 for analysis. The first step of the analysis was a review of the data to eliminate any cases that did not met the criteria for inclusion. The cases were examined to determine the completeness of data. If a participant left more than one scale unanswered, her responses were eliminated. Depending on the nature of the data non-parametric tests is used for the analysis of data. The normality test was done using Kolomogorov Smirnov test of normality. The data analysis was divided into 2 sections. The first section used frequency distributions and descriptive statistics. The second section also included correlation analysis to describe the relationships among the variables.
Table 1 shows result of Kolomogorov- Smirnov test of normality of aggression and alcohol use among theyyam performers. The Kolomogorov- Smirnov test indicates that the variables aggression and alcohol use follow a normal distribution since p > 0.05. That is, a small deviation has a high probability value or p-value and a larger deviation has a low probability value.
Table 1. Result of Kolomogorov- Smirnov test of Normality of Aggression and alcohol use among theyyam performers (N=60).

The normality test results pointed out that among three variables, aggression and alcohol use follows a normal distribution and dimensions of 16 PF does not follow a normal distribution. Hence in order to find out the relationship between alcohol use, aggression and personality factors, both Spearman correlation and Pearson correlation were used.Table 2 shows the result of Kolomogorov- Smirnov test of normality of dimensions of 16 PF: Warmth (A), Reasoning (B), Emotional Stability (C), Dominance (D), Liveliness (F), Rule Consciousness (G), Social Boldness (H), Sensitivity (I), Vigilance (L), Abstractedness (M), Privateness (N), Apprehension (O), Openness to Change (Q1), Self-Reliance (Q2), Perfectionism (Q3), Tension (Q4), Motivation distortion (MD). The Kolomogorov- Smirnov test indicates that the dimensions of 16 PF do not follows a normal distribution since p < 0.05.
Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics includes the frequency of demographic variables and description of alcohol use history and measures of central tendency such as mean, standard deviation was used.
Correlation Analysis
Correlation is a bivariate analysis that measures the strength and association between two variables and also the direction of their relationship. In terms of the strength of relationship, the value of the correlation coefficient varies between +1 and -1. A value of +1/-1 indicates a perfect degree of association between two variables. As the correlation coefficient value goes towards 0, the relationship between the two variables becomes weaker. The direction of relationship is indicated by the sign of the coefficient; a ‘+’ sign indicates a positive relationship and a ‘-’ sign indicates a negative relationship. Pearson r correlation is the most
widely used statistic to measure the degree of the relationship between linearly related variables. For the Pearson r correlation, both variables should be normally distributed. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to test the relationship between variables when they are non-normally distributed.
Ethical consideration
Participants will be provided with the appropriate information about the research.  An informed consent form will be obtained from all the participants. The participants were free to quit from the study at any point of time. Confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. The anonymity, protection and privacy of the research participants and the concerned institution were ensured before administering the research tools. It was also ensured that the data will only be used for research purposes. All the information’s given to the participants of the study were done with honesty and transparency. Affiliations in any forms, sources of funding, as well as any possible conflicts of interests were declared. Any kind of misleading information was avoided from the researchers ‘side.


Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics includes the frequency of demographic variables and description of alcohol use history and measures of central tendency such as mean, standard deviation was used.
Correlation Analysis
Correlation is a bivariate analysis that measures the strength and association between two variables and also the direction of their relationship. In terms of the strength of relationship, the value of the correlation coefficient varies between +1 and -1. A value of +1/-1 indicates a perfect degree of association between two variables. As the correlation coefficient value goes towards 0, the relationship between the two variables becomes weaker. The direction of relationship is indicated by the sign of the coefficient; a ‘+’ sign indicates a positive relationship and a ‘-’ sign indicates a negative relationship.
Pearson r correlation is the most widely used statistic to measure the degree of the relationship between linearly related variables. For the Pearson r correlation, both variables should be normally distributed. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to test the relationship between variables when they are non-normally distributed.
Ethical consideration
Participants will be provided with the appropriate information about the research.  An informed consent form will be obtained from all the participants. The participants were free to quit from the study at any point of time. Confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. The anonymity, protection and privacy of the research participants and the concerned institution were ensured before administering the research tools. It was also ensured that the data will only be used for research purposes. All the information’s given to the participants of the study were done with honesty and transparency. Affiliations in any forms, sources of funding, as well as any possible conflicts of interests were declared. Any kind of misleading information was avoided from the researchers ‘side.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This chapter comprises the results that examine the relationship of Personality profile, aggression and alcohol use using Pearson r correlation and spearman’s rank correlation.
This chapter was divided into 2 sections. The first section used frequency distributions and descriptive statistics. The second section included correlation analysis to describe the relationships among the variables.
 
 
 
Section 1: Descriptive Statistics
This section details the frequency distributions and descriptive statistics to provide a profile of the participants and baseline information about the scaled variables.
Table 3 shows the descriptive statistics of the demographic variables. Among the total participants 59% of them were from 45- 50 years, 27% from 51-55 years, 6.3% from 56-60 years and 7.9% from 61-65 years. Educational qualification distribution showed that schooling, under graduation, and post-graduation were with percentages of 81, 11.1 and 3.2 respectively. The percentage of the participants belongs to upper class, middle class and lower class is 15.9, 57.1 and 22.2 respectively.
Demographic information provided by the participants indicates that nearly 81% were married, 12.7 were unmarried and 1.6 of them were divorced. Approximately 90% of the participants were living in a nuclear family, and 6.3 percent living in a joint family. 81.3% participants were from Kannur district and 14.3% were from Kasargod district. About 57.7% participants were Malayan, 33.3% were Vaṇṇan and 4.8% were belonging to Pulaya community. Out of the 60 participants 50.8% were daily wage workers, 14.3 were drivers, 7.9 % were clerks and 4.8 were teachers and 17.5% of them are not doing any other work than performing theyyam.
Table 4 shows the demographic information provided by the participants. Results indicates that almost every participant were consuming alcohol and 23.8% of them using substances like cigarette also. The results also shows that 44.4% of their family member’s also consuming alcohol like father, brother and son with the percent of 28.6, 9.5 and 6.3 respectively. Among 60 participants, 4 of them reported physical illness such as high blood pleasure, arthritis and asthma with the percent 1.6, 3.2 and 1.6 respectively. The percent of participants who had the history of accidents while performing theyyam was found to be 42.9. As reported by the participants none of them have the diagnosis of mental illness. But one of the participant’s brother is diagnosed with mental illness (1.6%).
Table 5 shows the mean and standard deviation of dimensions of 16 personality factors among theyyam performers. The results shows that self-reliance (Q2) has highest mean score of 8.383 (SD=1.5348) among 16 personality factors. Also factors like Vigilance (L), Reasoning (B) and Privateness (N) have high mean scores of 6.417 (SD=2.0109), 6.317 (SD=1.5348), and 5.967 (SD=1.8316) respectively. The factor Dominance (E) has lowest mean score of 4.200 (SD=1.6753). The factors such as Tension (Q4) and Openness to Change (Q1) have also lower mean scores of 4.733 and 4.750 respectively.
Table 6 shows the mean score of aggression inventory were found to be 86.90 which indicate an average score. The mean score of subscales such as physical abuse, verbal abuse, impulsive /impatient and avoidance were 2.950, 2.950, 2.790 and 3.075 where 5 is the highest possible score, higher score reflecting more aggression.
Table 7 shows the alcohol use screening tool mean score found to be 11.17 which indicates a lower score. The means scores of consumption score, dependence score and alcohol related problem score were 4.83, 3.15 and 3.07. The subscales mean scores shows that the participants are low risk of alcohol related harm.





Section 2: Correlation analysis
This section details the correlation analysis to describe the relationships among the variables. Both spearman’s rank correlation and Pearson r correlation were used.
Table 8 shows the Spearman’s correlation between personality profile and aggression among theyyam performers. It shows that the correlation between Rule Consciousness (G) and aggression is 0.459 which indicates that there is positive correlation at 0.01 level of significance. The correlation between Rule Consciousness (G) and physical aggression is 0.428 which indicates that there is positive correlation at 0.01 level of significance. Table 8 shows correlation between Rule Consciousness (G) and verbal abuse is 0.308 which indicates that there is positive correlation at 0.05 level of significance. Results also shows positive correlation between Rule consciousness (G) and impulsive /impatient which is found to be 0.307 at 0.05 level of significance. It shows that correlation between Rule Consciousness (G) and avoidance is 0.278 which indicates a positive correlation at 0.05 level of significance. Table 8 shows correlation between and self-reliance (Q2) and aggression are 0.378 which indicates a positive correlation at 0.01 level of significance. It also shows that correlation between self-reliance (Q2) and verbal aggression is 0.385 which indicates a positive correlation at .001 level of significance.
Table 9 shows the Spearman’s correlation between 16 personality factors and alcohol use among theyyam performers. Table shows that the correlation between Reasoning (B) and alcohol use is -0.264 which indicates that there is a negative correlation at 0.01 level of significance. It shows that the correlation between Dominance (E) and consumption score is 0.298, which indicates that there is positive correlation at 0.01 level of significance. The factor Liveliness (F) is negatively correlated with both alcohol use and its subscale of consumption score that is -0.281 and -0.254 respectively at 0.01 level of significance. The correlation between Rule consciousness (G) and consumption score is 0.352, which indicates that there is positive correlation at 0.05 level of significance. Table 9 shows that the correlation between Privateness (N) and dependence score is -0.311 which indicates that there is negative correlation at 0.05 level of significance. It shows that the correlation between Tension (Q4) and Dependence score is 0.341 which indicates that there is positive correlation at 0.01 level of significance.                                       
Table 10 shows the Pearson r correlation between alcohol use and aggression among theyyam performers. The table shows that the correlation between Dependence and avoidance is 0.275, which indicates that there is positive correlation at the 0.05 level of significance.
 


DISCUSSION
The performer in theyyam is different from the actor in a theatre. Here, the performer is prepared not to perform the creation before an audience, but he kind of performs it out of the construct of dedication to the deity. He is gone into a divine being while in performance. Proper conventional preparing is important for successful ritual art which works essentially as a method for joining one’s actual self with the unending power of nature [5]. So here the performer’s personality and lives are quite different than normal people. This study was conducted in an attempt to find the relationship between personality profile, aggression and alcohol use among theyyam performers.
From the current study it is found that the theyyam performers characterized as m self-reliant and vigilant. They have good reasoning ability with less self-disclosure. This can be because of their traditional training starting from childhood and their strong social orientation. The performers become more self-sufficient, resourceful and self-opinionated. The results also shows that their intellectual abilities are above average than expected. This outcome affirms early findings that theyyam performer’s early trainings in combative techniques like kalaripayattu and their insight in Veda's and mantra's, their capacities of change and transportation to become divinity and an ordinary individual and their sensory capacities assumes a significant job as a part of their character advancement [12, 13].
The lower scores on dominance, tension and openness to change demonstrates that these performers are not ready to change their established ideas about their ritual’s art forms and very tolerant of customary challenges, also they are relaxed and less frustrated. It can in light of the fact that they wanted to conserve their ritual as it is. Their less dominant might be due to the traumatic effects of caste system and associated violence is making them submissive and that keep on obstructing their personality development. Yet theyyams healing power provides a safe outlet for individual and community responses to repressed trauma. This also supported by Ahammed [35] that folk rituals like Theyyam may have neuro-physiologically informed restorative and psychotherapeutic functions which help people cope with and heal from traumatic experiences.
When considering the correlations between the sixteen factors of personality and aggression, rule consciousness is positively correlated with over all aggression physical aggression, verbal aggression, impulsive or impatient and avoidance. Thus, people who obtained high scores on rule consciousness are more likely to present aggression. When people have weaker super ego strength people become expedient, evades rules and feels few obligations, but stronger superego strength leads to rule bound. But in theyyam performers shows an average rule consciousness which indicate sometimes they are restricted by rules and sometimes they are not. According to Menon [88] Theyyam sought to create a moral culture by setting limits in social norms - so far and no further. By deifying the victims, it generated a collective imagination of just and unjust acts. This could also affect the personality of the Theyyam performers. In the performance also we can see that theyyams like pottan theyyam are not restricted by rules.
Pottan Theyyam misuses, revolts, and even genuinely mal-treat the most noteworthy authority with an unusual aggressive temper. He calls out the landlords to kneel and lie within the dust. In Pottan Theyyam performance, an element is enacted in fire. When the theyyam starts to perform, he is believed to be strengthened by the spiritual power of God and starts to perform by lying and moving on the fire [8].
The self-reliance factor of personality is positively associated with overall aggression and verbal aggression. This indicates that people who obtained high scores on self-reliance are more likely to present aggression. Thus, theyyam performers scored high on self-reliance, they prefer own decisions, resourceful and self-sufficient. When others interfere with their decisions, they become more frustrated and express their anger verbally.
The use of alcohol is positively associated with personality dominance, consciousness of power and tension factors, which means that the higher scores on these factors would increase alcohol consumption and dependency. Consequently, the results from previous studies by Nerviano and Gross [17] corroborate that alcoholics consume alcoholic beverages to relieve tension. The performer’s exposure to injury, illness, or extreme temperatures, submissiveness can cause stress to the body. So, they drink in order to experience relief from the tension.
Alcohol use is negatively associated with personality factors like reasoning, enthusiastic and non-disclosing; i.e., the higher the scores on this factor, the lower will be the scores for alcohol consumption. This also means that, when performers are braver and more cautious, they drink only a small amount of alcohol. Because they are concerned about their health and can regulate their alcohol consumption. But they may drink more alcohol when they become emotional, realistic and honest. The results are also supported by the findings of previous studies [17]. The current study found that avoidance, the dimension of aggression is positively associated to alcohol dependence. This suggests that greater avoidance of warnings about potential harm may increase alcohol usage. This also assumes theyyam performers avoid confrontation while warned about the risk of alcohol use. This might have an impact on their physical as well as psychological health. If there is a sense of confidence, love and respect in the relationship with family, friends, and colleague they can use confrontation in a helpful manner. If these features are absent confrontation should be avoided because it is not usually perceived as helpful. Earlier researches also corroborate the current findings of the study. The result also shows that aggression like physical aggression and verbal aggression that shown in performance of theyyam are only the part of performance. Because they are not aware of what is happening, when they are in a trance state. The theyyam performers average score on aggression and its dimensions shows that consumption of alcohol is not causing verbal and physical aggression among them. So previous studies shows that aggressive personality traits only predicted aggression. Research study by McFarlin [89] suggest that, alcohol use is positively related to verbal and physical aggression and victimization in work place. The results do not confirm the findings of previous studies [84, 85]. The present study found that aggression dimensions: physical aggression, verbal aggression, impulsive and avoidance is positively associated with dutiful, individualistic, self-reliant and solitary personality traits. It suggests that theyyam performers might show aggression when someone disobey the rules or someone takes decisions for them. While alcohol use is positively related to rule conscious, forceful, assertive, and placid personality characteristics, and negatively related to fast-learning, enthusiastic, discreet and non-disclosing factors. Aggression dimension: avoidance is positively related to alcohol dependence. So, avoiding confrontations might increase their alcohol dependence. Hence, we can conclude that there is relationship between personality profile, aggression and alcohol use among theyyam performed.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The chapter comprises the summary of the study, major findings, conclusion, implications, limitations and suggestions for the future research. The current research investigation is to delve into the relationship between personality profile, aggression and alcohol use among theyyam performers. Theyyam is a socio-religious ritual depicting mythological, divine, ancestral, animal, serpent or heroic characters, each with its distinct physical form and story of origin. Bodies of theyyam specialists become the vehicles (in dance, possession, speech, and act) for the manifestation of deities [12]. People see and adore the theyyam as God. Performance is only a part of theyyam worship. The manifestation of the theyyam in its most complete and ordering form is achieved in events when the theyyam performer is masked and dressed in the regalia of the deity [12]. The religious, economic, political, social and cultural activities of humans, and even nature-human interactions in a-given space and time‖ are much grappled with in every aspect of theyyam [9]. Theyyam is a magico-religious observance which is highly conditioned by myth, says Damodaran [9]. Continues trainings in the ritual may have an effect on the development of personality. Alcohol is part of theyyam performance. Several Theyyam performers of the previous few generations were alcoholics [14].  So, it is more likely to have an effect on their personality and to develop aggressive behavior. In some theyyam, performer also do aggressive acts [15].
The objectives of the present study were:
  1. To study the personality profile, severity of alcohol use and level of aggression of theyyam performers.
  2. To find out the relationship between alcohol use and aggression in theyyam performers.
  3. To find out the relationship between personality profile and alcohol use in theyyam performers.
  4. To find out the relationship between personality profile and aggression among theyyam performers.
The hypotheses of the study were:
  1. There will be a significant relationship between level of aggression and severity of alcohol use.
  2. There will be a significant relationship between personality profile and severity of alcohol use.
  3. There will be a significant relationship between personality profile and level of aggression.
The sample of the study encompassed 60 theyyam performers within the age group of 45-65. Sample was collected using snowball sampling method. All the participants were given information about the study and informed consent was obtained using Google forms. The anonymity, protection and privacy of the research participants were ensured before the filling the forms. The following data collection tools were used:
  1. Socio-Demographic data sheet
  2. 16 personality factor questionnaire - Form C
  3. Aggression inventory
  4. Alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT)
The statistical analysis was done using the software SPSS version 21.0. Scoring of the variables was done in Microsoft Excel 2013 and tables were constructed using Microsoft Word 2013. Depending on the nature of the data non-parametric test was done for data analysis. For the analysis of the data the following statistical methods were used:
  1. Descriptive statistics
  2. Kolomogorov- Smirnov test of Normality
  3. Spearman rank correlation
  4. Pearson r correlation
MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
The following are the major findings of the study:
  1. Rule Consciousness (G) is having a positive relationship between overall aggressions among theyyam performers.
  2. Rule Consciousness (G) is having a positive relationship between physical aggressions among theyyam performers.
  3. Rule Consciousness (G) is having a positive relationship between verbal aggressions among theyyam performers.
  4. Rule Consciousness (G) is having a positive relationship between impulsive /impatient among theyyam performers.
  5. Rule Consciousness (G) is having a positive relationship between avoidance among theyyam performers.
  6. Self-Reliance (Q2) is having a positive relationship between overall aggressions among theyyam performers.
  7. Self-Reliance (Q2) is having a positive relationship between verbal aggressions among theyyam performers.
  8. Reasoning (B) is having a negative relationship between overall among theyyam performers.
  9. Dominance (E) is having a positive relationship between consumption among theyyam performers.
  10. Liveliness (F) is having a negative relationship between overall alcohol uses among theyyam performers.
  11. Liveliness (F) is having a negative relationship between consumption among theyyam performers.
  12. Rule Consciousness (G) is having a positive relationship between consumption among theyyam performers.
  13. Privateness (N) is having a positive relationship between dependence among theyyam performers.
  14. Tension (Q4) is positively related to dependence among theyyam performers.
  15. Avoidance is having a positive relationship between dependence among theyyam performers.
CONCLUSION
The current study focused on relationship between personality profile, aggression, and alcohol use among theyyam performers. The personality profile of the theyyam performers shows that theyyam performers are more self-sufficient, more vigilant, fast learner and have high abstract abilities, cooperative, traditional and more relaxed. The finding of the study suggest that the factor rule-consciousness is positively related to aggression and its dimensions. The factor Self-Reliance is positively related to overall aggression and verbal aggression. The study also suggests that there is negative relationship between reasoning with overall alcohol use. The Dominance and rule consciousness is having positive relationship between consumption. On the other hand, factor liveliness is having a negative relationship with overall alcohol use and consumption. Privateness and tension is positively correlated with dependence of alcohol among theyyam performers. The findings also shows that there is positive relationship between avoidance and dependence of alcohol among theyyam performers.
IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study revealed that there exists a relationship between personality profile, aggression, and alcohol use among theyyam performers. The findings of this study have the following implications:
  1. The studies on theyyam performers are necessary for understanding the underlying individual issues.
  2. Psychologists and counselors can predict the occurrence of behavioral problems among theyyam performers by identifying the kind of attribution they have.
  3. They can provide proper training programs to prevent the occurrence of behavioral problems because of alcohol use.
  4. Future studies on personality, aggression and alcohol use among theyyam performance should use multivariate designs in an effort to better identify the complex nature of this relationship.
  5. Continued research on theyyam performers is clearly needed.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
  1. Issues of temporal directionality between personality and alcohol use in theyyam performers need to be further answered.
  2. Comparative studies not performed between general population and theyyam performers to find out what makes them different.
  3. Findings could be affected by small sample size.
SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
Further research can be done including impulsivity, risk taking behavior and positive variables like psychological mindedness, psychological capital in theyyam performers. Longitudinal studies on the topic will yield more results on the impact of theyyam performance on performers. Moreover, this research will help future research to be inspired researching on this field and further research can be done qualitatively. This study provides a frame work for further research in this area.
 
 
  1. Kurup KKN (1973) The Cult of Theyyam and Hero Worship in Kerala, Calcutta: Indian Publication.
  2. Kurup KKN (1977) Aryan Dravidian Elements in Malabar Folklore, Trivandrum: Kerala Historical Society.
  3. Blackburn SH (1985) Death and Deification: Folk Cults in Hinduism. Hist Relig 24(3): 255-274.
  4. Durkheim E, Swain JW (1915) The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life Trans from the French. George Allen and Unwin Limited.
  5. Devan JV, Anju M (2008) An introduction to the mother goddess worships in theyyam performance of. Int J Res Cult Soc 2(4): 335-340.
  6. Unnikrishnan (2013) “Ithu Theyyakkālam”, Report in Vidhya supliment, Mathrubhoomi Daily. 61.
  7. Azhikod S (2007) Theyyathile jathi vazhakkam. Kottayam, Current Books. pp: 61.
  8. Madathil SB (2017) ATINER’s Conference Paper Proceedings Series.
  9. Damodaran MP (2008) Theyyam is the best tool for reconstructing the history of North Malabar. Anthropologists 10(4): 283-287.
  10. Pallath JJ (1995) Theyyam: An analytical study of the folk culture, wisdom, and personality. Indian Social Institute.
  11. Payyannur K (2011) Perumkaliyattam. Thrissur, Green Book Pvt. Ltd. pp: 15.
  12. Vadakkiniyil D (2010) Images of transgression: Theyyam in Malabar. Soc Anal 54(2): 130-150.
  13. Xygalatas D (2014) The burning saints: Cognition and culture in the fire walking rituals of the Anastenaria. Rotledge: Taylor & Francis Group.
  14. John J (2005) Socio-Economic and health problems of theyyam performers belonging to schedules castes of kerala. Kerala Development society (KDS Delhi).
  15. Pillai S (1993) Theater in ritual. pp: 99-108. Available online at: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/606/9/09_chapter%204.pdf
  16. Cattell RB, Eber HW (1957) The sixteen-personality factor questionnaire. Champaign, Ill. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
  17. Nerviano VJ, Gross WF (1973) A multivariate delineation of two alcoholic profile. J Clin Psychol 29(3): 371-374.
  18. Andrucci GL, Archer RP, Pancoast DL, Gordon RA (1989) The relationship of MMPI and sensation seeking scales to adolescent drug use. J Pers Assess 53(2): 253-266.
  19. Bottlender M, Soyka M (2005) Impact of different personality dimensions (NEO five fcator inventory )on the outcome of alcohol-dependent patients six and twleve months after treatment. Psychiatry Res 136(1): 61-67.
  20. Jaffe LT, Archer RP (1987) The prediction of drug use among college students from MMPI, MCMI, and sensation seeking scales. J Pers Assess 51(2): 243-253.
  21. Kornor H, Nordvik H (2007) Five-factor model personality traits in opioid dependence. BMC Psychiatry 7(1): 37.
  22. Kotov R, Gamez W, Schmidt F, Watson D (2010) Linking “big” personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: A meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 136(5): 768-821.
  23. Martin ED, Sher KJ (1994) Family history of alcoholism, alcohol use disorders and the five-factor model of personality. J Stud Alcohol 55(1): 81-90.
  24. Ruiz MA, Pincus AL, Schinka JA (2008) Externalizing pathology and the five-factor model: A meta-analysis of personality traits associated with antisocial personality disorder, substance use disorder, and their co-occurrence. J Pers Disord 22(4): 365-388.
  25. Sher KJ, Trull TJ, Bartholow BD, Vieth A (1999) Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism. Pers Individ Differ 10(12): 1289-1299.
  26. Alwin DF (1993) Personality and social structure. pp: 58-61.
  27. McCrae RR, Costa P (1997) Personality trait structure as a human universal. Am Psychol 52(5): 509-516.
  28. Olweus D (1979) Stability of aggressive reaction patterns in males: A review. Psychol Bull 86(4): 852.
  29. Baron RA, Richardson DR (2004) Human aggression. Springer Science & Business Media. J Pers Soc Psychol.
  30. Anderson CA, Bushman BJ (2001) Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychol Sci 12(5): 353-359.
  31. Geen RG (2001) Human aggression 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
  32. Berkowitz L (1993) Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  33. Mischel W (1999) Personality coherence and dispositions in a cognitive-affective personality (CAPS) approach. In The Coherence of Personality: Social-Cognitive Bases of Consistency, Variability, and Organization, ed. D Cervone, Y Shoda, New York: Guilford. pp. 37-60.
  34. Medina EL, Jose H (1970) The Role of Alcohol in Accidents and Violence." In Alcohol & Alcoholism, edited by Popham Robert E. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970. pp: 350-355. Available online at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctvfrxdt6.56.
  35. Ahammed S (2019) Caste-based Oppression, Trauma and Collective Victimhood in Erstwhile South India: The Collective Therapeutic Potential of Theyyam. Psychol Dev Soc 31(1): 88-105.
  36. Raji M, Vennala P (2019) A historical study of theyyam. Int J Multidiscip Educ Res 8(1): 112-123.
  37. Dalrymple W (2010) Nine Lives, In Search of the sacred in Modern India. 5th ed. London: BloomsBury.
  38. Monteiro NM, Wall DJ (2011) African dance as healing modality throughout the diaspora: The use of ritual and movement to work through trauma. J Pan Afr Stud 4(6): 234-252.
  39. Maisto SA, Galizio M, Connors GJ (2004) Drug Use and Abuse.
  40. Autti-Ramo I (2000) Twelve-year follow-up of children exposed to alcohol in utero. Dev Med Child Neurol 42: 406-411.
  41. National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (2001) Australian alcohol guidelines: Health risks and benefits. Canberra: Author of the Anastenaria. London: Routledge.
  42. Doweiko HE (2006) Concepts of chemical dependency. Pacific Grove, CA: Brook/Cole. Social Work, Christianity, and Addictions.
  43. Fleming M, Mihic SJ, Harris RA (2001) Ethanol. In J. G. Hardman, L. E. Limbird & A. G. Gilman Ed. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  44. Vanzile-Tamsen C, Testa M, Harlow LL, Livingston JA (2006) A measurement model of women's behavioral risk taking. Health Psychol 25(2): 249-254.
  45. Hair P, Hampson SE (2006) The role of impulsivity in predicting maladaptive behaviour among female students. Pers Indiv Differ 40(5): 943-952.
  46. Lejuez CW, Magidson JF, Mitchell SH, Sinha R, Stevens MC, et al. (2010) Behavioral and biological indicators of impulsivity in the development of alcohol use, problems, and disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34: 1334-1345.
  47. Zapolski TCB, Cyders MA, Smith GT (2009) Positive urgency predicts illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior. Psychol Addict Behav 23(2): 348-354.
  48. Derefinko K, DeWall CN, Metze AV, Walsh EC, Lynam DR (2011) Do different facets of impulsivity predict different types of aggression? Aggress Behav 37(3): 223-233.
  49. Tangney JP, Baumeister RF, Boone AL (2004) High self‐control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. J Pers 72(2): 271-324.
  50. Semple SJ, Zians J, Grant I, Patterson TL (2005) Impulsivity and methamphetamine use. J Subst Abuse Treat 29(2): 85-93.
  51. Cooper ML, Agocha VB, Sheldon MS (2000) A Motivational Perspective on Risky Behaviours: The role of personality and affect regularity processes. J Pers 68: 1059-1088.
  52. Gerra G, Angioni L, Moi G, Bussandri M, Bertacca S, et al. (2004) Substance use among high school students: Relationship with temperament, personality traits and parental perception. Subst Use Misuse 39: 345-367.
  53. Knyazev GG, Slobodskaya HR, Kharchenko IJ, Wilson GD (2004) Personality and substance use in Russian youths: The predictive and moderating role of behavioral activation and gender. Pers Indiv Differ 37: 827-843.
  54. Kuo PH, Yang HJ, Soong WT, Chen WJ (2002) Substance use among adolescents in Taiwan: Associated personality traits, incompetence, and behavioral/emotional problems. Drug Alcohol Depend 67: 27-39.
  55. Villa H, Ruipérez MA, Ibáñez MI, Moya J, Mestre H, et al. (2006) A cross-cultural study on personality and alcohol consumption in adolescents: Scotland and Spain. Poster presented at the 13th Biennial Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July, Athens.
  56. Wills TA, Windle M, Cleary SD (1998) Temperament and novelty seeking in adolescent substance use: Convergence of dimensions of temperament with constructs from Cloninger’s theory. J Pers Soc Psychol 74: 387-406.
  57. Wills TA, Sandy JM, Yaeger A (2000) Temperament and adolescent substance use: An epigenetic approach to risk and protection. J Pers 68: 1127-1152.
  58. Judge TA, Higgins CA, Thoresen CJ, Barrick MR (1999) The Big Five personality traits, general mental ability, and career success cross the life span. Person Psychol 52: 621-652.
  59. Martin LT, Friedman HS (2000) Comparing personality scales across time: An illustrative study of validity and consistency in life-span archival data. J Pers 68: 85-110.
  60. Hasin D, Fenton MC, Skodol A, Krueger R, Keyes K, et al. (2011) Personality disorders and the 3-year course of alcohol, drug, and nicotine use disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68(11): 1158-1167.
  61. Malouff JM, Thorsteinsson EB, Rooke SA, Schutte NS (2007) Alcohol involvement and the Five-Factor model of personality: A meta-analysis. J Drug Educ 37(3): 277-294.
  62. Park A, Sher KJ, Krull JL, Wood PK (2009) Dual mechanisms underlying accentuation of risky drinking via fraternity ⁄ sorority affiliation: The role of personality, peer norms, and alcohol availability. J Abnorm Psychol 118: 241-245.
  63. Caspi A, Robert BW, Shiner RL (2005) Personality development: Stability and change. Annu Rev Psychol 56: 453-484.
  64. Caspi A, Bem DJ (1990) Personality continuity and change across the life course. (In.L.Pervin, Ed.) Handbook of personality: Theory and Research. pp: 549-575.
  65. Cooper ML, Frone MR, Russell M, Mudar P (1995) Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alcohol use. J Pers Soc Psychol 69(5): 990-1005.
  66. Cox WM, Klinger E (1988) A motivational model of alcohol use. J Abnorm Psychol 97(2): 168-180.
  67. Kuntsche E, von Fischer M, Gmel G (2008) Personality factors and alcohol use: A mediator analysis of drinking motives. Pers Indiv Differ 45(8): 796-800.
  68. Stewart SH, Devine H (2000) Relations between personality and drinking motives in young adults. Pers Indiv Differ 29(3): 495-511.
  69. Nevid JS, Gordon AJ, Barris A, Sperber JE, Haggerty G (2019) Personality profiles of patients with alcohol use disorder and opioid use disorder in an inpatient treatment setting. J Subst Abuse Treat 97: 91-96.
  70. Luchetti M, Terracciano A, Stephan Y, Sutin AR (2018) Alcohol use and personality change in middle and older adulthood: Findings from the Health and Retirement Study. J Pers 86(6): 1003-1016.
  71. Borovalova MA, Hicks BM, Iacono WG, McGue M (2013) Longitudinal twin study of borderline personality disorder traits and substance use in adolescence: Developmental change, reciprocal effects, and genetic and environmental influences. Personal Disord 4: 23-32.
  72. American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  73. Compton WM, Conway KP, Stinson FS, Colliver JD, Grant BF (2005) Prevalence, correlates and comorbidity of DSM-IV antisocial personality syndromes & alcohol and specific drug use disorder in the U.S: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 66: 677-685.
  74. Grant BF, Chou SP, Goldstein RB, Stinson FS, Saha TD, et al. (2008) Prevalence, correlates, disability and comorbidity of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder: Results from the Wave Two National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 69: 533-545.
  75. Grant BF, Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Chou SP, Ruan WJ, et al. (2004) Co-occurrence of 12-month alcohol and drug use disorder and personality disorders in the U.S: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61: 361-368.
  76. Morgenstern J, Langenbucher J, Labouvie E, Miller KJ (1997) The comorbidity of alcoholism and personality disorders in a clinical population: Prevalence rates and relation to alcohol typology variables. J Abnorm Psychol 106: 74-84.
  77. Skodol AE, Oldham JM, Gallaher PE (1999) Axis II comorbidity of substance use disorder among patients referred for treatment of personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry 156: 733-738.
  78. Trull TJ, Sher KJ, Brown MC, Durbin J, Burr R (2000) Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders: A review and integration. Clin Psychol Rev 20: 235-253.
  79. McGue M, Slutsk W, Taylor J, Lacono WG (1997) Personality and Substance Use Disorders: I. Effects of Gender and Alcoholism Subtype. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 21: 513-520.
  80. Griffin KW, Botvin GJ, Scheier LM, Doyle MM, Williams C (2003) Common predictors of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggression, and delinquency among inner-city minority youth. Addict Behav 28(6): 1141-1148.
  81. Wennberg P, Bohman M (2002) Childhood temperament and adult alcohol habits: A prospective longitudinal study from age four to age thirty-six. Addict Behav 27: 63-74
  1. Pulkkinen L, Pitkänen TA (1994) Prospective study of the precursors to problem drinking in young adulthood. J Stud Alcohol 55: 578-587.
  2. Birkley EL, Giancola PR, Lance CE (2013) Psychopathy and the prediction of alcohol-related physical aggression: The roles of impulsive antisociality and fearless dominance. Drug Alcohol Depend 128: 58-63.
  3. Chermack ST, Giancola PR (1997) The relation between alcohol and aggression: An integrated bio psychosocial conceptualization. Clin Psychol Rev 17: 621-649.
  4. Taylor SP, Gammon CB (1975) Effects of type and dose of alcohol on human physical aggression. J Pers Soc Psychol 32: 169-175.
  5. Aliaga M, Gunderson B (2002) Interactive Statistics. [Thousand Oaks]: Sage Publications.
  6. Glaude BA (1991) Qualitative and quantitative sex difference in self-reported aggressive behavior characteristics. Psychol Rep 68: 675-684.
  7. Menon DM (1993) The Moral Community of the Theyyattam: Popular Culture in Late Colonial Malabar. Stud Hist 9(2): 187-217.
  8. McFarlin SK, Fals-Stewart W, Major DA, Justice EM (2001) Alcohol use and workplace aggression: An examination of perpetration and victimization J Subst Abuse 13(3): 303-321.