The Various Aspects Correlated to Self-Efficacy of Male Postgraduate Students: A Mini-Review in Reference to the Contemporary Situation
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The postgraduate students stand in a threshold of life where are they prepared to take the flight of liberty and autonomy. They encounter a variety of problems from every realm of life. This is the review of the paper “A study on self-efficacy of male postgraduate students.” The various dimensions of the paper have been delineated in terms of the present eldritch situation around the world. The present study explored on the effects of resilience, mindfulness, helping attitude and different factors of personality on self-efficacy of 100 male postgraduate students. On statistical analysis of data like Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation of Coefficient and Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis, a significant correlation between self-efficacy of male postgraduate students and the following variables- resilience, mindfulness and helping attitude at 0.05 level and openness to experience at 0.01 level. The contributing factor to self-efficacy is found to be resilience. Resilience can rightly be considered as the necessary factor to confront the disruptions in our life and in the current situation.
Keywords: Self-efficacy, Resilience, Mindfulness, Helping attitude, Personality
The life of young male post-graduate students encompasses a wide range of activities, situations, and crisis. This may be due to their age, where they are stepping into the world with loads of responsibilities and contests to prove their potentials. Therefore, to deal with the new circumstances they should be able to identify their abilities and believe in them, this is referred to as self-efficacy. The present study delves into the relationship of self-efficacy with other variables such as- Resilience, Helping attitude, Mindfulness and 5 factors of personality namely- Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. This may support the self-efficacious nature of the students required for coping with unanticipated stressors.
Adulthood comes with a load of brand-new experiences where the male post-graduate students use their abilities to deal with these situations. Some may succumb to the stressful situation while others emerge victoriously. This ability to fight back and in over the strenuous situation is known as resilience. Their belief in their ability to deal effectively with the situation is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy helps a person to think and plan to deal with life after trauma . Resilience may help a self-efficacious person to gain a better idea about self and his available resources . This cognizance of self may aid the person to make a comeback. If the present pandemic situation is to be considered, many male post-graduate students are in a state of confusion regarding their future. They need to gain knowledge about their potentials and believe it so that they are prepared and direct their actions in a definite and productive direction. Self-efficacy is extremely specific in nature and it controls the behavior in a particular direction .
Mindfulness is the cognitive aspect of an individual to deal with the present without judgement. It is the feeling of competence to a certain task . A student who possesses the ability of being mindful will be better able to think and tackle effectively according to the need of the hour. This might allow needing of self-efficacy because unless the person believes he can do so, he will continue to fret about the future, rather than dealing with the situation. It has also been found that mindfulness acts as a mediator of a high level of self-efficacy in perceived stress . This may be the case because the subjects in stressful conditions tend to use their potentials of self-efficacy and plan to deal with the current situation. The male post-graduate students may understand the problem at hand and analyze the resources possessed by him to combat the stressful situation. At present, the young students are seen to utilize the time to nurture and obtain knowledge on various aspects preparing for their career opportunities.
Personality has been defined as the dynamic organization within the individual of the psychophysical systems that determine the unique adjustment to the environment. The personality factors might play a vital role in the self-efficacious nature of an individual. The belief in one’s abilities may be influenced by the traits of the individual to a great extent. The five personality factors in the present study are-Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness . The students’ magnitude of emotional stability and impulse control may be defined as Neuroticism. Extraversion is characterized by energetic, emotionally active, assertive and outgoing. They have a proclivity to seek stimulation. Openness to experience is referred to the trait of a high level of curiosity, proneness to innovative ideas and concepts, a tendency to think in an unconventional manner to a problem. Agreeableness is a trait in which the male student is keen on getting along with the classmates and acceptance from friends matters to a great deal. Thus, they act in a compassionate way. Conscientiousness is a personality factor in a person possessing the trait to be disciplined, dutiful, organized and diligent. The above-mentioned variables might influence the self-efficacy of the male postgraduate students. With reference to the prevalent scenario, a neurotic young adult male might be experiencing a lot of stress as the normal lifestyle and activities have come to a standstill. A young male student might feel anxious about the classes, about the future of job opportunities. For some attending the online classes might create a state of tension, about their understanding of the matter, inability to reach the lecturer at online platforms. The inability to lead the usual life may bring about dramatic changes in moods. The postponement of examinations may be frightening or performance in online tests may be disquieting. This kind of male students might be anxious about the future lying ahead which induces negative effects and wane their self-efficacy.
The male postgraduate students are high in extraversion trait might feel the current situation as a depressing one. Their inability to hang out with their friends due to social distancing may be also bothering and making the life monotonous. They are in a constant urge to stay connected with their friends on various social platforms. This is seen leading to numerous unique ways to self-expression and proclaiming their activities to the world, which might lift their moods making them feel at ease, while the students who are low in extraversion level prefer the solitude and might not feel exhausted. The students may not enjoy the presence of all the members and may regard it as disruption to their seclusion.
People who score high in openness to experience consider this time as an opportunity to explore a new ‘self’. They may try out new hobbies, dishes, art forms, new experiences like online learning. They may begin new strategies to accept contemporary career options suitable for upcoming times. The agreeable students might engage themselves in voluntary services such as the distribution of essential items to the weaker sections of the society. Their empathic nature provides ample proof of their trait of concern for others. This gives them satisfaction and happiness by lending their aid in this hour of struggle.
The male post-graduate students high in the Conscientiousness factor may make their life useful by doing household chores, preparing themselves for future studies and importantly working according to a schedule set by them. They might utilize the time planning for their coming life rather than procrastinating. They may be persistent in their pattern of behavior even though engaging themselves in new activities, to keep their schedule systematized.
In the present study, the participants were given the following questionnaires (with established reliability and validity)
- General Self-efficacy Scale
- Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 
- Toronto Mindfulness Scale
- Helping Attitude Scale
- NEO Five-factor Inventory
After the collection of the data, Mean and Standard Deviation of the variables were calculated. Pearson’s coefficient correlation was used to find the relationships between the variables. Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to determine the contributing variable of Self-efficacy of the male postgraduate students. 0.05 and 0.01 levels of significance were accepted .
The data obtained after statistical analysis a positive relation was found to exist between Self-efficacy and the variables like- Resilience, Mindfulness, Helping Attitude and Openness to experience .
Resilience enables the male post-graduate students to fight against the situation and it is only possible when they think he is really skilled in doing so. The young adults have to face numerous hardships, death of dear ones, breakups, performance pressure in exams, substance abuse. The postgraduate students seem to go through a wide array of complications both in career and personal spheres. So, with their self-efficacious belief, they might deal constructively with the stressful situation. When the students are aware of the present, they become more focused to utilize their resources required for the current state. The students who are mindful they are seen taking the present devilish situation to give assistance to serve the society, so that not only themselves other people may also thrive the condition. This shows that they are quite vigilant about the current situation and recognizing their helping attitude, which can be definitely correlated to Self-efficacy. This might also help them to remain mindful of the present situation where they are ready to fight back the overwhelming situation.
The current situation is such where the self-efficacious nature of the young male postgraduate students can help them go along way with the aforementioned variables. Their belief in their potentials might help them to ponder over other vibrant scopes in life and career. This substantiates the fact that he will be open to new horizons. They might shift their focus from the customary vocation to some unique employment suitable to the capacities. The ability to be flexible with demanding times also depend on the self-efficacious character of the young male students. The world is going through tough times where it is highly necessary to induce positive spirit so that they can be aware of the situations and their sense of it. Mindfulness enables in deliberating over the existing predicament and deal effectively with experienced stress. When the individual is involved in dealing with the present a clear picture appears before him about self and considerate of others’ trouble. The person in contemporary situations comes to help others who are less fortunate. This is accomplished when the individual has a belief in their altruistic nature. They try to help to the extent possible by them. A person with the personality trait of Openness to experience can be permissive to new ideas and allow himself to involve in new tasks whether a new hobby or social service or new online courses, to thrive in this dilemma. This will sanction his self-efficacy and provide him with a chance of betterment.
The factors like Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness had no significant relationship with Self-efficacy. Thus, it can be observed that the results established in the present study, is quite congruous to the present situation.
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