Research Article
Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Ginger (Zingier Officinal) and Garlic (Allium Sativum) Oil Mixture on the Growth Performance and Caecal Microbial Population of Broiler Chickens
Alagbe JO, Department of Animal Nutrition and Biochemistry, Sumitra Research Institute, Gujarat, India
Corresponding Author: Oluwafemi RA, Halima Abdullahi1 and Alagbe JO*
Received: August 10, 2021; Revised: October 10, 2021; Accepted: October 13, 2021 Available Online: November 20, 2021
Citation: Oluwafemi RA, Abdullahi H & Alagbe JO. (2023) Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Ginger (Zingier Officinal) and Garlic (Allium Sativum) Oil Mixture on the Growth Performance and Caecal Microbial Population of Broiler Chickens. J Microbiol Microb Infect, 5(1): 152-156.
Copyrights: ©2023 Oluwafemi RA, Abdullahi H & Alagbe JO. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The objective of the present study was to determine effect of dietary inclusion of (Zingier Officinal) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil mixture (GIGM) on the growth performance and caecal microbial population of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty-one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated into 5 treatments with three replicates consisting of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Birds in treatment 1 (T1) was fed basal diet with 0 % inclusion of GIGM while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were given 0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % respectively. Clean feed and water were offered ad libitum and all other management practices were strictly observed throughout the experiment which lasted for 56 days. Results obtained were used to determine weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), total feed intake (TFI), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and microbial population of E. coli, Salmonella spp and Lactobacillus spp. ADWG, ADFI and FCR were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) influenced by the dietary inclusion of GIGM. ADWG were highest in T5 (47.80 g), T4 (45.75 g) and T3 (45.09 g), intermediate in T2 (39.59 g) and lowest in T1 (30.72 g). Lactobacillus spp increased as the level of dietary inclusion of GIGM increases (P ˂ 0.05). E. coli and Salmonella spp counts were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) different among the treatments. It was concluded that GIGM could be included in the diet of broilers up to 0.4 % without causing any deleterious effect on the performance and health of birds.

INTRODUCTION

Consumer pressure for antibiotic free poultry products has led to increased research in the area of antibiotic alternatives, including essential oils. Essential oils (EOs) are plant-based medicine that perform multiple biological activities such as; antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral and hepato-protective [1]. According to Adewale [2] and Musa [3], EOs are volatile oily liquids extracted from plant parts, such as flowers, buds, stems, seeds, leaves, twigs and root which are capable of producing a positive physiological function in the body of animals. All plant parts synthesize an extremely diverse range of chemical compounds (phytochemicals) which represent a great potential for the discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals [4]. Among the essential oil of high medicinal value are ginger (Zingier officinal) and garlic (Allium sativum).

Ginger (Zingier officinal) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Its essential oil had long served the purpose of being medically significant, as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory analgesic and immunodulatory impacts due to the presence of minerals, vitamins, amino acids and phytochemicals (β-bisabolene and zingiberene (major) other sesquiterpenes include zingiberol, αr-curcumence, β-sesquiphellandrene, β-sesquiphellandrol (cis and trans); numerous monoterpenchydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes) [5-7].

Garlic (Allium sativum) contains sulfur compounds including alliin, produced enzymatically from (diallyl ehisosulfinate), allylpropyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, ajoene and vicnyldithiines (secondary products of alliin produced non-enzymatically from allicin); S-allylmeracaptocystocysteine (ASSC) and Smethymeracaptocysteine (MSSC); terpens include citra, geranoil, linalool alfa and beta-phellandrene [8,9]. Previously, garlic oil has been listed as GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) [10].

The efficacies of EOs are well documented both in vivo and in vitro [11]. According to Burt [12], combination of essential oils has a greater antibacterial effect than individual EOs alone. EOs have been demonstrated to positively impact growth performance, blood profile and gut health of animals [13]. However, there are inconsistencies in the results due to differences in the chemical composition of EOs, which are affected by plant age or part used, extraction or processing methods, geographical locations and anti-nutrients [1].

Therefore, this experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingier officinal) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil mixture on the growth performance and caecal microbial population of broiler chickens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experimental Site
This study was carried out at the Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja Teaching and Research Farm, Main Campus, along airport Road, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Gwagwalada is the headquarters of the Gwagwalada Area Council located between latitudes 8°571 and 8°551N and longitude 7°051 and 7°061 E [14].

Sourcing and extraction of oil
Fresh samples of ginger and garlic rhizomes were purchase from a local market in Gwagwalada Abuja, Nigeria. The samples were sorted out of the bad ones, then washed and peel manually with a kitchen knife to remove the outer covering of the rhizomes. It was dried for 14 days, milled into powder using a laboratory blender (Panasonic: Model 07A-08C) and then stored in an air tight well label container for further analysis. The oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction procedure; 100g of the sample were placed in a reflux condenser which consists of a condenser and a round bottom flask. The solvent used is petroleum ether and adjusted to 65oC to reach a vaporization point before the filtrate was exposed to the atmosphere and the residual solvent was allowed to evaporate before extracting the oil. The extracted oil was mixed in ratio 1: 1 to obtain ginger and garlic oil mixture (GIGLM).

Experimental Animals and their management
One hundred and fifty-one-day old (Ross 308) broiler chicks with mixed sex were used for the experiment. The birds were purchased from a commercial hatchery in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and weighed on arrival on the farm to obtain their initial body weight and thereafter weekly. A deep litter housing system was used for the experiment. Pens were fumigated two weeks prior to the commencement of the study, surroundings were cleaned and foot bath was made available to ensure strict biosecurity. Birds were divided to five treatments with 3 replicates of ten birds in a completely randomized design. Charcoal pots were used as source of heat and wood shavings serve as the litter material. Vaccines were administered according to the disease condition in the environment and all other management practices were strictly adhered to throughout the experiment which lasted for 56 days.

Diet formulation
Two basal diets were formulated at different stages of production to meet up with the requirements of birds according to NRC (1994) as presented in Table 1. Broiler starter’s mash (1-28 days) and finishers mash (29-56 days). Birds in Treatment 1 (T1) was fed dietary inclusion of ginger and garlic oil (GIGLM) at 0 %, while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were fed 0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % respectively.

*Premix supplied per kg diet: - vit A, 13,000 I.U; vit E, 5mg; vit D3, 3000I.U, vit K, 3mg; vit B2, 5.5mg; Niacin, 25mg; vit B12, 16mg; chorine chloride, 120mg; Mn, 5.2mg; Zn, 25mg; Cu, 2.6g; folic acid, 2mg; Fe, 5g; pantothenic acid, 10mg; biotin, 30.5g; antioxidant, 56mg.

MEASUREMENTS

Performance parameters
Feed intake (g) was determined by subtracting feed left over from feed served, it was estimated for each of the replicate daily.
Weight gain (g) = final weight - initial weight
Feed to gain ratio = feed intake (g) ̸ weight gain (g)
Caecal microbial enumeration

On the 56th day of the experiment, 6 birds were randomly selected per treatment for caecal microbial enumeration (E. coli, Salmonella spp and Lactobacillus spp). A 10-fold serial dilution method was used in which 1% peptone solution was mixed with caecal samples and poured unto agar plates (Model R4-02X, Punjab, India) and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Visible colonies were enumerated using colony counter and the results were expressed as log10 CFU/g of caecal digesta.

Phytochemical analysis
Phytochemical analysis of GIGM was carried out using standard methods described by Harborne [15], Odebiyi and Sofowora [16].

Statistical analysis
Data obtained were subjected to one -way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS (23.0) and significant means were separated using the software of the same package. Significant was declared if P ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS

Phytochemical composition of
ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil
The phytochemical composition of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil (GIGM) is presented in Table 2. The sample contains flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, phenols, oxalates, alkaloids and tannins at 20.78 %, 6.10 %, and 12.71 %, 17.90 %, 2.04 %, 10.31 % and 9.44 % respectively. In order of abundance flavonoids ˃ phenols ˃ terpenoids ˃ alkaloids ˃ tannins ˃ saponins ˃ oxalates.
Growth performance of broiler chickens fed dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) (GIGM) oil
Growth performance of broiler chickens fed dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil is presented in Table 3. Initial body weight (IBW) ranged from 42.80 - 43.10 g, final body weight (1720.4 - 2720.0 g), weight gain (1677.6 - 2677.0 g), average daily weight gain (30.72 - 47.80 g), total feed intake (3880.3 - 4565.8 g), average daily feed intake (69.29 - 81.53 g) and feed conversion ratio (1.50 - 2.72). WG, ADG, TFI and ADFI were highest in T3, T4 and T5 relative to the other treatments (P˂0.05). FCR were significantly different among the treatments (P˂0.05).
Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05); T1: 0 % GIGM; T2: 0.1 % GIGM; T3: 0.2 % GIGM; T4: 0.3 % GIGM; T5: 0.4 % GIGM; IBW: initial body weight; FBW: final body weight; WG: weight gain; ADG: average daily weight gain; TFI: total feed intake; ADFI: average daily feed intake; FCR: feed conversion ratio.

Caecal microbial population of broiler chicks fed diets with different level of GIGM

Caecal microbial population of broiler chicks fed diets with different level of GIGM is presented in Table 4. Microbial population of E. coli, Lactobacillus spp and Salmonella spp ranged from 20.12 - 34.98 (log10CFU/g), 15.40 - 30.44 (log10CFU/g) and 18.20 - 29.09 (log10CFU/g). E. coli and Salmonella spp values were highest in T1 relative to other treatments (P˂0.05) contrary to Lactobacillus spp count where T5 was highest, T2, T3, T4 followed similar trend and lowest in T1 (P˂0.05).


DISCUSSION

The pharmacological importance of EOs is primarily due to bioactive chemicals in plant tissues as primary and secondary metabolites [17]. These constituents have several therapeutic properties for instance terpenoids possess anticarcinogenic, antimalarial, anti-ulcer, antimicrobial or diuretic activity [18,19]. Flavonoids in plants possess medicinal benefits which includes antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [20,21]. They have the ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals, super oxide anions and lipid peroxy radicals [22]. Alkaloids perform antimalarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant and protection of plants from pathogens [23]. Phenolic compounds show a wide range of pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory and prevention of cardiovascular diseases [24].
The superior growth performance observed among birds in T3, T4 and T5 (P˂0.05) could be attributed to the essentials oils combination which exerted synergistic effects to prevent the consequence of intestinal inflammation. Activities of phytochemicals in GIGM have also proven to stimulate functions of the intestinal tract to improve digestive secretions, nutrient absorption and metabolism [25]. The dietary inclusion of GIGM in broilers also exerted a significant difference in feed intake (P˂0.05).
The activities of pathogenic bacteria in the caecum of the birds decreased as the dietary inclusion of GIGM increases (P˂0.05) across the treatments. This result agrees with the findings of Singh [1] and Adewale [2] who reported that phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenols and alkaloids are capable of reducing the activities of pathogenic bacteria through competitive exclusion and promoting the proliferation of beneficial bacteria like Lactobacillus spp, thus playing a role of a probiotic. GIGM can act at different sites of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and relay on different targets such as modifying the intestinal microbial balance in favor of beneficial bacterial strains, colonization of the mucosa by adhering non-pathogens and occupation of specific receptors on mucosal surface (prebiotics) [26,27].

CONCLUSION
It was concluded from this experiment that the use of essential oils (GIGM) is effective and effective and it represents one of the promising alternatives to antibiotics because it contains several secondary metabolites which performs several medicinal properties. Dietary inclusion of GIGM at 0.4 % had a significant impact on growth as well as reducing the population of pathogenic bacteria without causing any deleterious effect on the performance and health of the animal.
 
 
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