Research Article
A MINI CONCEPTUAL STUDY TO UNDERSTAND AND DEFINE HOSPITALITY DISCIPLINE
Ar. Rahul Mehta*
Corresponding Author: Ar. Rahul Mehta, Amity Institute of Design, Amity University Haryana Gurgaon.
Received: 21 May 2021; Revised: 25 May 2021; Accepted: 10 June 2021 Available Online: 04 August 2021
Share :
  • 314

    Views & Citations
ABSTRACT

One of the oldest professions known over time is Hospitality. Hospitality has a very powerful impact on the overall tourism sector as both hospitality and tourism industry are a close niche. This mini review is based on a conceptual study of the various definitions and sectors of the hospitality sector. This review article also presents the various studies by different researchers and presents how a variety of researchers have classified hospitality in their studies. There has been an increasing demand on integrated resorts which include lodging, eating and drinking places, various types of rejuvenation activities and entertainment. In view of this increasing demand, study also provides a basic classification of the various types of resorts, the factors which influence visitors visit to a resort and their key features.

Keywords: Hospitality, Resort, Eco-friendly, Classification of resorts, Marketing
INTRODUCTION

Recently, many researchers have started working in the field of hospitality and tourism and have provided insights into several areas, reminiscent of management, human behavior, finance, planning, promoting and many more. Many researchers have outlined it as a field which involves studies from multidisciplinary perspectives (Rivera, 2008; Riegel, 1995; Cassee, 1984).

Hospitality is one important aspect and could also be taken as in of the subsection of travel industry as it forms the fundamental basics of the domestic and international recreation market. In general terms, hospitality can be defined in two ways, on can be in terms of behavior and experience and other can be in terms of hosts and guests (Mehta, 2020). As per Chambers English Dictionary (2001) Hospitality is defined as ‘entertaining strangers and guests kindly and without reward: showing kindness: generous: Bountiful’ and according to Oxford Dictionary (2002) it is the “friendly and generous reception of guests or strangers”. The first way being behavior and experience has been studied by various researchers and as mentioned by (King, 1995). Whenever this term is being defined, there are certain things which should be kept in mind such as friendliness, generosity, host-guest relationship and host experiences. In accordance with a statement, stated by (Lashley, 2000). ‘Hospitality requires the guest to feel that the host is being hospitable through feelings of generosity, a desire to please and a genuine regard for the guest as an individual’. The other way to define it is in terms of hosts and guests. (Pritchard, 1981), Stringer 1981, have presented a report which explains the relationship between the host and guest and reports that it is the key distinguishing characteristic of hospitality which is also been stated by (Lashley,2000). As, 'hospitality is essentially a relationship based on hosts and guests'. As studied by (Lashley, 2000; Telfer, 2000; Pizam, 2020). There is still a major question that is “Can true hospitality be ever provided within a commercial context”.

In some reports by (Gillespie 1994; Jayawardena, 2000; Slattery 2002; Hemmington, 2004; Hemmington, 2007). There arises a confusion in the hospitality industry which is due some basic questions about how the hotel industry is classified, namely whether it is a service industry, entertainment industry, art industry or retail industry or its should only be classified as business. It has also been studied from a different perspective i.e., from philosophical to commercial perspective by (Lashley & Morrison, 2000) in which they have also studied the role of media and post modernism. The main area of this study is studying the concept of hospitality under three domains i.e private, social and commercial environment. Although, the views presented by (Lashley & Morrison, 2000) has challenged the theory given by (Slattery, 2002) and his ‘three- domain approach’. As according to (Slattery, 2002). “Hotels, restaurants, bars and the other hospitality venues are businesses where the critical relationship is between sellers and buyers. The buyers are not guests, they are customers. The relationship is not philanthropic it is economic.” In accordance to the hospitality model provided by (Slattery, 2002). It gives a clear view of the hospitality industry under four key headings i.e., Leisure venue hospitality, Travel venue hospitality, subsidized hospitality and free-standing hospitality business. In an article by (Brotherton&Wood,2000) have defined hospitality as: “A contemporaneous human exchange, which is voluntarily entered into, and designed to enhance the mutual well-being of the parties concerned through the provision of accommodation, and/or food, and/or drink” which although fails to provide any sense of vibrant, exciting and creative industry in real world.

The studies of (Brotherton & Wood, 2000), (Telfer,2000). Also highlight the centering of hospitableness around accommodation, food and drink.

Many researchers have studied hospitality in different aspects and perspectives as it is very diverse. (Ninemeier & Perdue, 2005). reported that due to its diversity, it cannot be defined and explained in a straightforward manner. Although, the tourism industry is fully associated with hospitality but many people have related it only with hotels and restaurants (Powers & Barrows, 2006). According to a report by (Lashley,2001). Hospitality is defined as a group of some service firms which are related to accommodation, food and drink in the educational and industrial organizations in the English speaking countries. In the previous times, hotels and catering units come under hospitality given by the U.K. academics (Brotherton, 1999; Jones & Lockwood, 2000; Lashley, 2001). Considering the accommodation sector it comprises of everything between guest houses to luxury properties where as the he food sector comprises , drinks and food served in restaurants, pubs, clubs and other areas like shopping malls, planes, railways and ships. Studies by various researchers (Walker, 2004). have defined and combined tourism and hospitality under one umbrella. (Nykiel, 2005). Has also characterized travel, lodging, entertainment, foodservices and recreation as elements of the hospitality sector. Hospitality term comes from medieval “hospice” meaning “house of rest” for travelers and pilgrims as studied by (Powers, 1992). in which it has been reported that the hospitality industry consists of hotels and restaurants, and tourism-travel as an affiliated industry. Whereas in a report by (Walker, 2004). There is identification of the four main areas of the hospitality as travel, lodging, foodservice, and recreation. As, described in a study by (Harrison & Enz 2005). (Ottenbacher, Harrington, & Parsa, 2009), hospitality enterprise mainly incorporates any business which offers accommodation, food and drink or a mixture of all of the three. On the other hand, (Kotler, Bowen, & Makens 2006). have defined hospitality industry having all the three combinations with an addition of entertainment to the travelers. Conference center services and meeting, exposition, and entertainment management should also be included in the hospitality field has also been suggested in a study by (Ninemeier & Perdue 2005). According to a classification made by (Makens & Choy, 1989). the travel-related industries can be classified into three categories. Category 1 which would include direct providers of services, i.e hotels, restaurants, travel agents, airlines, and ground transportation. Category 2 would include support services that provide direct or indirect service to a traveler (contract food service, tour organizers, travel publications, etc.). Category 3 would include tourism development agencies or organizations such as government agencies, financial institutions, real estate developers, and so on. Therefore, according to the above mentioned classification Gee, Makens, and Choy (1989) have considered Category 1 as the primary supporters of the travel industry followed by the Categories 2 and 3. This understanding is consistent with many other hotel tourism classifications (Figure 1).

Many recent studies have used the term “integrated resort” in context to the place which have convergent properties such as rejuvenation, hotels, food and beverage services, shopping malls, and showroom (Gao & Lai, 2015; Hobson, 2002; Lam et al., 2011; Philander & Zhong, 2016; Suh and Lucas, 2011; Yang et al., 2017). There have been numerous attempts to define the integrated resort and identify how the integrated resort differs from tourism products. Numerous researchers have tried to define the integrated resort in their different perspectives and studies (Ahn, 2018). and have differentiated how an integrated resort is different from the tourism products. In today’s era tourism and hospitality has becoming more demanding, more varied and more qualitative.

A resort can be defined as a full-carrier lodging facility which offers a wide range of rejuvenation and recreational amenities to enhance the stay experience (Brey, 2011). Similarly, according to (Brey,2011). resorts can also act as sources which offer business activities in addition to the leisure experience. The destination attractiveness and location plays a crucial role in resort selection by the tourists. As quoted by Mayo and Jarvis (1981) defined, destination attractiveness is the "perceived ability of a destination to deliver exclusive benefits”. As destination plays an important role in resort selection (Henkel, et al.2006; Reitsamer, et al. 2016) have studied the role of destination attractiveness and detachment. In this study they have reported the tourists satisfaction expectations, benefits offered, location and environment is significantly related to the tourists revisiting intentions. (Prayag & Ryan. 2011), mentioned in their study that tourists' feeling of belongingness to a destination and their destination attachment can decorate destination management agencies (DMOs) by way of the form of services the respective vacation spot gives. creating an area that can be a source of attachment to tourists might be greater positive and appealing (Yuksel, et al., 2010). The literature review has found out the importance of vacation spot attachment which may additionally consist of travel motivation (Prayag, et al., 2014), the credibility of destination source (Veasna, et al., 2013), destination photograph (Prayag & Ryan, 2011), the involvement of vacationers' (Gross & Brown, 2008) and previous revel in of the vacationers' (Kyle, et al., 2004). As studied with the aid of Prayag & Ryan (2011). (Veasna, et al. 2013), that vacation spot attachment is caused by a set of destination-unique sources and help that DMOs can facilitate and control. Many researchers has reported and studied the importance of destination attachment which may include travel motivation (Prayag, et al., 2014), the credibility of destination source (Veasna, et al., 2013), destination image (Prayag, & Ryan, 2011), the involvement of tourists' (Gross & Brown, 2008) and previous experience of the tourists' (Kyle, et al., 2004). As studied by Prayag & Ryan, 2011; Veasna, et al. 2013), that destination attachment is caused by a set of destination-specific resources and assistance that DMOs can facilitate and control.

There are various types of resorts being classified on the types of recreational amenities and rejuvenation facilities provided by them, these are shown in (Figure 2).

Various researchers have studied different kinds of resorts and how certain factors impact the visiting of tourists at those places. Many researchers have studied the various types of integrated resort phenomena through years and some of those have also given postulates which explain how development of integrated resort is related to community support (Nunkoo & Ramkissoon, 2009; Eraqi, 2007). As studied by (Mehta, 2020), Karma Lake lands is eco-friendly resort which is spread close to 300 acres, stands beautiful and green with over 2,00,000 trees and plants. This resort is termed as an eco-friendly resort as it has various types of eco-friendly activities such as bee farming, solar panels installed, organic farming and have provisions for water harvesting. For these activities the resort has also been as the World’s best eco-friendly Golf facility resort by the World Golf Awards. In a recent study (Mehta, 2020), has studied how resorts can be helpful in rejuvenation thereby providing holistic wellness for the mind, body, and soul through a case study of the Ananda in the Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India.

(Dsouza, 2019) has also reported a brief overview of what eco-tourism is and explained it with the help of on eco resort in Goa. In this study, he has reported that what are factors which make a resort eco resort and how this resort delivers a unique and complete holiday experience. This eco resort has also been studied in detail by various other researchers and academicians (Rentschler, 2007; Kotler & Kotler, 2000). In which they have reported that “how the success of an eco-resort is dependent on the selection of recreation sites, nature loving cultivation and respect for local residents‟ life and culture which has been the mission of this eco resort at Goa that it delivers a wide variety of experiences to visitors which might be visual, sensory, esthetic, recreational, educational, celebrating and enchanting and which lead them to visit the resort again.

There are various factors as also mentioned by (Mehta, 2020) which affect the popularity of a resort and makes the visitors to revisit the place. Some of the important factors are listed in (Figure 3).
CONCLUSION

This review gives a brief overview of the basics of hospitality and the various sectors in which it can be classified. As, a matter of fact hospitality is a sector in tourism industry which actually combines the whole of the tourism industry. There are several factors as explained in the review which are responsible for visitors to visit a place in which the hospitality provided to them plays a crucial role for tourist revisiting the same place. This has also been extended by explaining the various kinds of resorts and how different factors are responsible for the popularity of resort.

  1. Ahn, J., (2018). Integrated resort A review of research and directions for future study. International Journal of Hospitality Management 69, 94-101.
  2. Brey, E.T. (2011). A Taxonomy for Resorts. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 52(3), 283- 290.
  3. Brotherton, B. (1999). Towards a definitive view of the nature of hospitality and hospitality management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11, 165-173.
  4. Brotherton, B., & Wood, R. (2000). Hospitality and hospitality management in Lashley & Morrison In Search of Hospitality Butterworth Heinemann.
  5. Brotherton, B. (2002). Finding the hospitality industry A Response to Paul Slattery. Journal of Hospitality Leisure Sport & Tourism Education (1), 2.
  6. Cassee, E.T., (1984). The Management of Hospitality. Pergamon Press Oxford.
  7. D’souza, L.M., & Sarode, N.G., (2019). Experiential marketing practices in goa a case study of an eco-resort. Marketing Management 13-19.
  8. Eraqi, M.I., (2007). Local communities attitudes towards impacts of tourism development in Egypt. Tourism Analysis 12(3), 191-200.
  9. Gao, B.W.,& Lai, I.K.W., (2015). The effects of transaction specific satisfactions and integrated satisfaction on customer loyalty. International Journal of Hospitality Management 44, 38-47.
  10. Gee, C.Y., Makens, J.C., & Choy, D.J. (1989). The travel industry New York John Wiley.
  11. Gillespie, C.H. (1994). Gastrophy and Nouvelle Cuisine: Entrepreneurial Fashion and Fiction, British Food Journal 96(10), 19-23.
  12. Gross, M.J., & Brown, G. (2008). An empirical structural model of tourists and places progressing involvement and place attachment into tourism. Tourism Management 29(6), 1141-1151.
  13. Harrison, J.S., & Enz, C.A. (2005). Hospitality strategic management Concepts and cases Hoboken NJ John Wiley.
  14. Hemmington, N (2004). Concepts of Hospitality from service to experience, Proceedings I CHRIE Conference Philadelphia.
  15. Hemmington, N. (2007). From Service to Experience understanding and defining the hospitality business. The Service Industries Journal 27(6).
  16. Henkel, R., Henkel, P., Agrusa, W., Agrusa, J. & Tanner, J. (2006). Thailand as a tourist destination Perceptions of international visitors and Thai residents. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 11(3), 269-287.
  17. Hobson, W., (2002). A research report on private residence clubs a new concept for second home ownership. International Journal of Hospitality Management 21(3), 285-300.
  18. Jayawardena, C. (2000). International Hotel Manager. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12(1), 67-69.
  19. Jones, P., & Lockwood, A. (1995). Hospitality operating systems. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 7(5), 17-20.
  20. King, C.A. (1995). What is hospitality. International Journal of Hospitality Management 14(3&4), 219-234.
  21. Kotler, P., Bowen, J., & Makens, J. (2006). Marketing for hospitality and tourism. Upper Saddle River NJ Prentice Hall.
  22. Kotler, N., & Kotler, P. (2000). Can museums be all things to all people Missions goals and marketings role. Museum Management and Curatorship 18(3), 271- 287.
  23. Kyle, G., Graefe, A., Manning, R., & Bacon, J. (2004). Effects of place attachment on users perceptions of social and environmental conditions in a natural setting. Journal of Environmental Psychology 24(2), 213-225.
  24. Lam, L.W., Chan, K.W., Fong, D., & Lo, F., (2011). Does the look matter. The impact of casino services cape on gaming customer satisfaction, intention to revisit, and desire to stay. International Journal of Hospitality Management 30(3), 558-567.
  25. Lashley, C. (2000). Towards a theoretical understanding, in Lashley & Morrison In Search of Hospitality Butterworth Heinemann, 1-17.
  26. Lashley, C. & Morrison, A. (2000), In Search of Hospitality Theoretical perspectives and debates Butterworth Heinemann Oxford.
  27. Lashley, C., & Morrison, A. (2001). Towards a theoretical understanding. In search of hospitality Theoretical perspectives and debates, 1-17.
  28. Mayo, E. & Jarvis, L. (1981). The psychology of leisure travel Effective marketing and selling of travel leisure travel Boston MA CABI Publishing.
  29. Mehta, R., (2020). Defining and design understanding the various realms of hospitality discipline an environmentalist ecoresponsible golf resort. International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Review 7 (2), 63-73.
  30. Mehta, R. (2020). Luxury Redefined A case study of the Ananda in the Himalayas Uttarakhand India. International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Reviews 7(1), 109-118.
  31. Ninemeier, J. D., & Perdue, J. (2005). Hospitality operations Careers in the worlds greatest industry Upper Saddle River NJ Pearson Education.
  32. Nunkoo, R., & Ramkissoon, H., (2009). Community support for an integrated resort project. In Management of sustainable tourism in the next decade prospects and challenges Paper Presented at the International Conference on Sustainable Tourism Management. Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
  33. Nykiel, R.A. (2005). Hospitality management strategies. Upper Saddle River NJ Pearson Education.
  34. Ottenbacher, M., Harrington, R.,& Parsa, H.G. (2009). Defining the hospitality discipline a discussion of pedagogical and research implications. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 33(3), 263-283.
  35. Philander, K., Zhong, Y., (2016). Twitter sentiment analysis capturing sentiment from integrated resort tweets. International Journal of Hospitality Management 55, 16-24.
  36. Pizam, A. (2020). Hospitality as an Organizational Culture. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 44(3), 431-438.
  37. Powers, T., & Barrows, C. (2006). Introduction to management in the hospitality industry  Hoboken NJ John Wiley.
  38. Prayag, G., & Ryan, C. (2011). Antecedents of tourists loyalty to Mauritius the role and influence of destination image place attachment involvement and satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research 51(3), 342-356.
  39. Prayag, G., Hosany, S., & Soscia, I. (2014). I feel attached Motivation and tourists emotions as antecedents of place attachment. Proceedings of the 43rd EMAC Conference Valencia Spain 3-6.
  40. Reitsamera, B.F., Brunner-Sperdin, A.,&Stokburger-Sauer, N.E. (2016). Destination attractiveness and destination attachment. The mediating role of tourists attitude. Tourism Management Perspectives 19, 93-101.
  41. Rentschler, R. Sandell, R., & Janes, R.R (2007). Museum marketing Understanding different types of audiences. Museum Management and Marketing 345-365.
  42. Riegel, C.D., (1995). Purpose perspective & definition toward an encompassing view of HRI education. Hospitality & Tourism Educator 3(1), 18-19, 28-32.
  43. Rivera, M.A., (2008). The role of research in the hospitality industry A content analysis of the IJHM between 2000 and 2005. International Journal of Hospitality Management 27, 632-640.
  44. Slattery, P. (2002), Finding the hospitality industry. Journal of Hospitality Leisure Sport & Tourism Education 1(1).
  45. Suh, E.,& Lucas, A.F., (2011). Estimating the impact of showroom entertainment on the gaming volumes of Las Vegas hotel casinos. International Journal of Hospitality Management 30(1), 103-111.
  46. Telfer, E. (2000).The philosophy of hospitableness in Lashley & Morrison In Search of Hospitality Butterworth Heinemann.
  47. Veasna, S., Wu, W., & Huang, C. (2013). The impact of destination source credibility on destination satisfaction the mediating effects of destination attachment and destination image. Tourism Management 36, 511-526.
  48. Walker, J. R. (2004). Introduction to hospitality management. Upper Saddle River NJ Pearson Education.
  49. Yang, F.X., & Tan, S.X., (2017). Event innovation induced corporate branding. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 29(3), 862-882.
  50. Yuksel, A., Yuksel, F., & Bilim, Y. (2010). Destination attachment effects on customer satisfaction and cognitive affective and conative loyalty. Tourism Management 31(2), 274284.