Research Article
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY-BASED ECOTOURISM SUSTAINABILITY AND ITS SUPPORTS TO THE SDGS: GOALS NUMBER 8 AND 17
Novelina Tampubolon*, Christine Wulandari
Corresponding Author: Novelina Tampubolon, Ecotourism Program, Papua University, Campus 3 UNIPA-Raja Ampat.
Received: 23 July 2021; Revised: 30 July 2021; Accepted: 02 August 2021 Available Online: 29 September 2021
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Currently, every development activity is directed at achieving the goals of sustainable development (SDGs) including community-based ecotourism development. Community-based ecotourism is the right program in solving problems caused by tourism activities also to support goals number 8 and 17 of SDGs achievement. In addition to maintaining the authenticity of nature and the environment, maintaining the authenticity of art and culture, customs, the way of life also ensures the welfare of local communities in ecotourism areas. Community involvement in ecotourism activities directly has helped improve the economy of local communities. The results of several show that the community-based ecotourism development has an impact on increasing local people's income and the formation of partnership between local communities and NGOs or other parties at local and global level. Thus, it can be concluded that the community-based ecotourism development program has proven to be able to support the achievement of SDGs goals no. 8 and 17.

Keywords: Community-Based Ecotourism, Local Communities, Partnership, SDGs
INTRODUCTION
Tourism is one of Indonesia's leading sectors. The potential of natural wealth makes Indonesia one of the most visited countries by tourists, both domestic and international tourists. The number of tourists increased from year to year, i.e., 8.8 million in 2013 to 15.81 million people in 2018 (Ministry of Tourism, 2018). On the other hand, it is undeniable that along with the development of tourism activities has also caused various problems such as the occurrence of the socio-cultural degradation and environmental damage. (ILO,2012). argue that the number of ecosystems is exploited such as the consumption of water, energy, and waste double compared to the amount consumed by local communities, in addition there are still number of hotels and restaurants that use non-biodegradable chemicals that cause environmental pollution. This is supported by Sharma Research ,2016. Conducted in Kerwa, Bhopal, India shows that increased tourism activities have an impact on resource exploitation and produce waste that is harmful to the environment.
The government, private parties, and environmentalists are trying to find some solutions to the problems above. The most possible and appropriate solution to overcome the problem is to encourage tourism management using the concept of ecotourism (Salman et al, 2020). Ecotourism is a concept that not only about tourism activities but the emphasis of conservation activities and prioritizes ecological, social, and economic aspects for local communities (Khallaf, 2014). (Avenzora ,2008). stated that ecotourism activities are carried out simply in maintaining the authenticity of nature and the environment, maintaining the authenticity of art and culture, customs, the way of life, forming tranquility, silence, protecting flora and fauna and the environmental biodiversity is maintained so that the balance between human life in utilizing nature can occur.
The term ecotourism developed over time until the emergence of community-based ecotourism concepts in the 2000s. This concept still contains the basic essence of ecotourism, namely the preservation of nature, culture, and society but community-based ecotourism has more emphasis on the role of the community for each activity of the management of ecotourism, so that it profits for the welfare of the community itself (Harilal & Tichaawa, 2018). This is supported by WWF-Indonesia's statement (2009) that community-based ecotourism is a tourist activity that makes the community as the main actor in ecotourism management activities including benefits that will be obtained directly by the community. (Mahdayani,2009).  (Harilal & Tichaawa,2018). stated that ecotourism provides direct benefits to the local community through the procurement of local transportation, accommodation, and guide services. It is similarly stated by (Manahampi et al ,2015). that Bahoi villagers experience improved welfare after ecotourism activities. Bahoi people initially only worked as fishermen, but after ecotourism developed in the community, they got additional jobs as guides, homestay providers also the boats used for fishing can be rented to tourists, and local people is starting to sell food to tourists.
With the abundance of literature that explains the development of ecotourism terminology on the importance of implementing the concept of community-based ecotourism (CBE) because it is profitable while improving the welfare of the community and can support ecological sustainability. There are only some researches on CBE about its support to achieve the goals of the SDGs, especially number 8 related to the economy and community welfare and number 17 related to partnerships. The two SDGs goals are very relevant to CBE because according to (Salman et al 2020), the community still has to be supported in their efforts to improve welfare (goal no 8). On the other hand, the CBE program will be able to develop well and sustainably if there is a partnership with relevant parties for the program as in the social forestry program in Indonesia (Wulandari &Inoue, 2018). Based on this, it is necessary to have a study that discusses this, with the hope that this article can later be used as a recommendation for the government and other parties in overcoming various problems when implementing community-based ecotourism in their area based on environmental, socio-cultural, and economic characteristics of the community that is specific to each region. In addition, it will also provide an in-depth understanding as a basis for implementing community-based ecotourism development based on lessons learned in various regions.
 
 
LESSON LEARNED OF COMMUNITY-BASED ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT

The concept of community-based ecotourism began to develop in the 2000s; This concept emphasizes the full involvement of the community from tourism planning, development, and management (Eshun et al, 2017). (Keliwar et al, 2013). suggest that the concept of community-based ecotourism is an alternative approach to participatory tourism development planning, and it is also identifying the impact of tourism activities on the environment, socio-cultural and economic to minimize the negative impacts of tourism activities and prioritize benefits for local communities. Not much different from the statement (Baskoro, 2016). (Lellotery et al. 2020). that community-based ecotourism is a picture of tourism businesses that prioritize active participation of local communities as well as a tool to realize sustainable tourism development.

The community-based ecotourism development in Banda Islands, Maluku Province, Indonesia can be said to be successful. The results of Baskoro's research (2016) showed that the development of tourist destinations in the Banda Islands is based on sustainable principles from the economic, social, and environmental sides. The formation of active and competent community groups in the field of ecotourism is the first step in involving the community in the implementation of ecotourism and further building cooperation between local communities and tour operators and travel agency with the aim of equalizing income and making tour guides for tourists so that the culture and life of the local community is maintained. In addition, community houses are also used as accommodations for tourists to stay (known as homestays) as a form of education for tourists in getting to know the culture and way of life of the local community.

In another location, Sukabumi, West Java Province, Indonesia where the results of Hijri and Rina research (2014) showed that the existence of community-based ecotourism in Kampung Batusuhunan, Sukabumi has provided significant changes in ecological, social, and economic aspects. The community has a sense of responsibility to maintain the environment and implement an environmentally friendly lifestyle so that the efforts to preserve and conserve natural resources of tourist destinations in Batusuhunan village remain sustainable. It is not uncommon for people to collaborate in the field of ecotourism with outsiders. According to (Wulandari & Inoue, 2018). outsiders have a real influence on the development of the lives of rural communities around the forest. In addition, the existence of ecotourism has provided opportunities for rural communities to find work in the form of providing lodging (homestays), tour guides, caterers, selling snacks, and photographers.

Moving on to another country, namely Zimbabwe, which is one of the countries that has successfully implemented the concept of community-based ecotourism. (Gusti, 2005). in his article wrote that in the management of Zimbabwe's National Parks, initially there was a conflict between the government and the local community. However, the government continues to approach the local community with the help of NGOs so that wildlife management in Zimbabwe National Park can run well once it involves the community in the management. Wildlife management in ecotourism proven can improve the economy of local communities and increase their income (Mcdonald & Wester, 2021). For the aspects of the ecology, the presence of community-based ecotourism is the best alternative for conservation activities such as the management of wildlife and landscapes which are as beautiful as the habits of wildlife in the National Park of Zimbabwe. The increase in community income and collaboration with NGOs or other parties in the development of CBE in Indonesia, namely in the Banda Islands, Maluku and West Java and National Park of Zimbabwe means that this program has proven to support the achievement of SDGs no. 8 and 17.
 
STAGES OF COMMUNITY-BASED ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN SUPPORTING THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SDGS GOALS NUMBER 8 AND 17

Currently, one of the activities associated with development in all sectors including the tourism sector refers to 17 (seventeen) of the sustainable development goals, or more known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Of the 17 objectives of SDGs, community-based ecotourism development can support the achievements of: 1) SDGs 8’s objectives are to increase inclusive and sustainable economic growth, optimal and productive workforce, and decent work for all, 2) SDGs 17’s objectives are to strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize global partnerships for sustainable development.

SDGs number 8's goal is to promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, an optimal and productive workforce, and decent work for all to be achieved through community-based ecotourism development activities. Ecotourism management involving the community directly has created employment opportunities for local communities and reduced poverty. Ecotourism income is obtained from the provision of tourism services such as local transportation, lodging, food and beverage sales, souvenir sales, and wages earned as tour guides. Thus, the active involvement of the community in every tourist activity in a tourist attraction help increasing economic growth and optimizes productivity at work irrespective of age or gender as long as the community has the ability to sustain in the field of ecotourism. This condition as previously described that has been proven in the development of ecotourism in Indonesia, namely Maluku (Baskoro, 2016). West Java (Hijriati & Rina, 2014). and in zimbabwe (Gusti, 2005). The positive impact that occurs in the location is supported by Tuwo's statement (2011) that the principles in the development of ecotourism are: 1) Active community involvement in the planning and development of ecotourism; 2) If a conservation area is developed for ecotourism, then foreign exchange and tourist spending are allocated proportionally and fairly to the central and local governments; 3) Arrange for the area used for ecotourism and management of conservation area managers can receive direct income.

The presence patterns of community-based ecotourism do not mean that the society will run the business of ecotourism itself but will simultaneous and integrated handle it along with all stakeholders of the tourism places. Starting from the community level, the community, government, business, and non-governmental organizations. Implementation of ecotourism needs to be seen as part of the planning of integrated development carried out in an area at the local, national, and global. The involvement of stakeholders is expected to build a network and run a partnership that better suits the role and expertise of each. Partnerships between stakeholders at all levels in the development of community-based ecotourism has indirectly supported the achievement of the objectives of the SDGs’ 17 is strengthening the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

Tuwo, 2011 stated that the positive impact of CBE development efforts is because in its implementation it considers the following principles are: 1) Active community involvement in the planning and development of ecotourism; 2) If a conservation area is developed for ecotourism, then foreign exchange and tourist spending are allocated proportionally and fairly to the central and local governments; 3) Arrange for the area used for ecotourism and management of conservation area managers can receive direct income. In addition, according to (Wardani et al, 2017). there are 5 stages in the development of CBE that should be carried out to be sustainable, namely: (1) The proper and optimal management and development of ecotourism must be based on aspects of the preservation of natural resources and the carrying capacity of the area (maximum utilization rate of the area and the maximum number of activities in the area) so as to minimize damage or decrease in the quality of the area, (2) The addition of tourism activities can provide optimal benefits for local communities and stakeholders as well as provide optimal satisfaction for tourists, (3) Improving the quality of human resources in the field of ecotourism, especially indigenous peoples who live in tourist areas because their habits and culture are able to provide tourist attractions and also local communities become a determinant of the quality of the tourism products offered, (4) Increasing economic activity due to the circulation of money between tourist, business units and labor but in the use of natural resources must be selective and not exploitable and (5) The existence of management and development policies ecotourism and coordination among relevant stakeholders.
 
CONCLUSION

The conclusions that can be drawn are:
  1. Community-based ecotourism development activities have directly created job opportunities for local communities and reduced poverty. Ecotourism income obtained from the provision of tourism services such as local transportation, lodging, food and beverage sales, souvenir sales, and wages earned as a tour guide. Thus, the active involvement of the community in every tourist activity in a tourist attraction in addition to increasing economic growth also optimizes productivity at work and regardless of age as long as the community has the ability in the field of ecotourism (SDGs Goal number 8).
  2. The implementation of community-based ecotourism needs to be seen as part of an integrated development plan carried out in an area at the local, national and global levels. The involvement of related parties from the community level, community, government, business and non-governmental organizations is expected to build a network and run a good partnership according to their respective roles and expertise. Through partnerships between stakeholders at all levels in community-based ecotourism development activities, it has indirectly supported the achievement of SDGs number 17 namely strengthening implementation facilities and revitalizing global partnerships for sustainable development.
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