Research Article
COMMUNITY BASED ECOTOURISM MANAGEMENT STUDY TUMPAK SEWU WATERFALL AND GOA TETES IN SIDOMULYO VILLAGE, PRONOJIWO DISTRICT LUMAJANG REGENCY
Parino Rahardjo* and Farisha Chaidir
Corresponding Author: Parino Rahardjo, Lecturer on Urban and Regional Planning, Tarumanagara University; Indonesia.
Received: 02 September 2022; Revised: 10 September 2022; Accepted: 13 September 2022 Available Online: October 17, 2022
Share :
  • 85

    Views & Citations
The management of nature tourism in Indonesia currently tends to involve local communities, with the hope that nature tourism can provide economic and social benefits for the community. Ecotourism that is the object of research is Tumpak Sewu Waterfall and Goa Tetes which are located at the base of the slopes of Mount Semeru, located side by side. The management of tourism objects is managed by the local community. The beauty of natural tourism is maintained, by limiting the number of visitors, especially when going down to waterfalls and caves, and climbing the surrounding hills. Management carried out by the community if it is not integrated, transparent, accountable and fair will lead to conflicts between residents. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the community in managing natural tourism objects. This study uses a qualitative approach, with data collection by conducting observations, and in-depth interviews with stakeholders. Analysis using descriptive method. This study found that the management carried out by the community can maintain the sustainability of the tourism object ecosystem, improve the welfare of the community.

Keywords: Tourism objects, Community, Management, Continuity
INTRODUCTION

Tumpak Sewu Semeru Waterfall and Goa Tetes are tourist destinations located in the Sidomulyo Tourism Village, Kec. Pronojiwo, Lumajang Regency, which is 47 km south of Lumajang city center. This object is close to the location of the tourist attraction of Goa Tetes. Tumpak Sewu Waterfall and Goa Tetes, has a height of about 120 m. This waterfall is a waterfall that is formed from the flow of the Glidih River which originates on Mount Semeru. Tumpak Sewu Waterfall and Goa Tetes are located in Sidomulyo Village, Pronojiwo District, Lumajang Regency, and East Java. The topography of Sidomulyo village is in the form of highlands, and the geographical condition of the altitude is around 600 above sea level. Goa Tetes since 1975, began to be visited by the community, mostly local people, especially school students around Pronojiwo Lumajang District. Then because it is unique and considered to have potential, in 1982 the Lumajang Regency Government began to work on and manage this place seriously as a tourist attraction, while Tumpak Sewu Waterfall was introduced to the general public, since March 13, 2015. On that date also as the inauguration of the Kelompok Sadar Wisata (Pokdarwis) Tumpak Sewu which consists of village communities.

Since Tumpak Sewu Waterfall is managed as a tourist attraction, making this tour a new job field and many young people are involved in tourism management. Every month there are more than 2,000 local tourists and 150-200 foreign tourists who visit. In 2018, Tumpak Sewu Waterfall Tourism won the first prize at the 2018 East Java Tourism Award in the category of natural attractions. This is because the natural beauty that exists is maintained because of its tourism management. According to the Head of Marketing of the Lumajang Disparbud, Arief Efendi, Pokdarwis Tumpak Sewu is able to manage well and mobilize the surrounding community to participate, so that the positive impact can be felt by residents in terms of income and also the economy.

Management of both ecotourism objects, by local communities, with involvement in planning, development, and in operations, which includes supervision of infrastructure, maintenance and engages in business. Ecotourism is also defined by a set of principles that include its benefits for conservation and the welfare of the community around the tourism site. The management of Tumpak Sewu Waterfall, which relies on the participation of the surrounding community, can be used as an example for other tourism management. Community-based ecotourism management should be able to maintain the preservation of nature, culture, and the welfare of the community. Therefore, this study aims to determine the role of the community in managing ecotourism.

The book ASEAN Community Based Tourism Standard (2018) CBT is a tourism activity that is owned and operated by the community, managed or coordinated at the community level that contributes to the welfare of the community by supporting sustainable livelihoods and protecting the values of socio-cultural traditions as well as natural and heritage resources culture. Meanwhile, in terms of “The travel industry usually classifies ecotourism with nature or adventure tourism; often referred to as “responsible”, “sustainable”, “green”, or “low impact” tourism and, in 2000, new terms such as “pro-poor tourism” (Honey, Martha.2008).

According to, Megan Epler Wood (2002), Ecotourism has the following principles:

  • Minimize the negative impact on nature and culture that can damage the destination.
  • Educate tourists about the importance of conservation.
  • Emphasize the importance of responsible business, which works with local authorities and communities to meet local needs and deliver conservation benefits.
  • Direct income for conservation and management of natural and protected areas.
  • Emphasize the need for regional tourism zoning and visitor management plans that are well designed for areas or natural areas that are planned to be eco-friendly destinations.
  • Emphasize the use of environmental and social baseline studies, as well as long-term monitoring programmes, to assess and minimize impacts.
  • Strive to maximize economic benefits for the host country, local businesses and communities, in particular those living in and adjacent to natural and protected areas.
  • Endeavor to ensure that tourism development does not exceed the social and environmental limits of acceptable change as determined by researchers in collaboration with local residents.

Relying on infrastructure built in harmony with the environment, minimizing the use of fossil fuels, conserving local plants and wildlife, and blending with the natural and cultural environment.

The statement of Megan Epler Wood, 2002 related to the principle of ecotourism, which reminds the need to preserve nature and local culture. Infrastructure that is built in harmony with the environment, minimizes the use of fossil fuels, preserves local plants and wildlife, and blends with the natural and cultural environment. Knight,2009 also stated, from an environmental point of view, forest tourism or ecotourism, tourists can be concentrated in a limited area, because the object is unique and 'interesting'. Concentration and gathering of tourists in a limited space causes disturbance to wildlife, trampling on vegetation, forest fires caused by bonfires or cigarette butts, soil erosion. (Stefan Gössling & Michael Hall, 2006).

Community participation in tourism, according to the ASEAN Community Based Tourism Standard (2018), Community Based Tourism (CBT), has several principles; these principles are integrated and stated as performance criteria in the standard.

In the management of ecotourism which is managed by the community, it can be institutionalized in groups. In Indonesia it is called the Tourism Awareness Group Pokdarwis is an institution at the community level whose members consist of residents where they live, have care and responsibility and act as a driver in supporting the creation of a conducive climate. for the growth and development of tourism, in increasing regional development through tourism and its benefits for the welfare of the surrounding community. Community participation in tourism has a legal basis that is used as a reference, namely: (1) Law Number 10 of 2009 concerning Tourism, (2) Presidential Instruction of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2005 concerning Culture and Tourism Development Policy.

Tourism development in rural areas can bring many benefits to the community, and elements operating in this sector must be competitive in terms of domain knowledge, problem-solving skills and competencies, and self-confidence to succeed. The development of key skills and competencies as well as entrepreneurial competencies is measures that may be effective in overcoming the mismatch of existing skills. Managing ecotourism in rural areas requires the community as managers to think creatively, to develop the natural and cultural potential of the village responsibly. “Their skills and competencies provide further guidance for the development of their businesses (Conceicao Castro, & Fernanda Ferreira, 2019). Invitations or socialization to protect the natural wealth and village culture are not enough verbally, but need to use an effective and efficient way. “The realization of posters or banners by community members can be a rich communication activity (Guy Bessette, 2004).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The existence of the Tumpak Sewu Waterfall and Goa Tetes attractions is recognized by the existence of a Regulation or Decree (SK) that supports the position of the Tumpak Sewu Waterfall tourist attraction. The following are regulations and decrees that support the development and management of the Tumpak Sewu Waterfall tourist attraction: Lumajang Regency Regional Regulation concerning the Master Plan for Tourism Development of Lumajang Regency for 2018-2033. Based on the regional regulation, it states that Pronojiwo District and its surroundings are Regency Tourism Destinations (DPK) and Sidomulyo Village and its surroundings are Regency Tourism Strategic Areas (KSPK).

The ecotourism development of Goa Tetes and Tumpak Sewu Waterfall refers to the Lumajang Regent's Regulation Number 06 of 2009 concerning Regional Spatial Planning. Article 22 paragraph 3 F stipulates that Goa Tetes as part of a Tourism Park The natural tourism park area as referred to in paragraph (1) letter b is an area that has attractive natural scenery and is at the same time used as a recreational/tourist facility without disturbing the conservation area, so that the management of the two tourist destinations must pay attention to the Regent's Regulation on spatial planning, by prioritizing the principle of conservation.

COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN MANAGEMENT

The tourist destination of Goa Tetes, initially managed by the Lumajang Regency Government in 1982, the following year around 2015, its management was carried out by the community. The existence of Tumpak Sewu Waterfall as a new tourist destination in Sidomulya Village resulted in a decrease in the number of tourist visits to Goa Tetes, to maintain the number of tourist visits, finally the community groups that manage Goa Tetes opened new access. Access which was originally only from the top side, a new access was opened from below through the Tumpak Sewu Waterfall, which is located next to it.

Tumpak Sewu Waterfall Tourism Destination, from the beginning was initiated by a group of residents of Sidomulya Village, which aims to get a new source of income for the community, the beginning of the search for a new source of income was Goa Tetes, but did not get permission from the Lumajang Regency government, because at that time Goa Tetes It has been managed by the Lumajang Regency Government. The search for new sources of income for the people of Sidomulyo Village continued, ultimately establishing Tumpak Sewu Waterfall as a new tourist destination to be developed.

To realize Tumpak Sewu Waterfall as a tourist destination, community groups make access to reach tourist destinations, by connecting existing village roads, then creating viewpoints to make it easier for tourists to see the Waterfall in its entirety from the top, and to facilitate tourists to enjoy the waterfall up close, stairs or steps are made because of the extreme slope. The development of access as the initial capital of a tourist destination as a result of the mutual cooperation of the residents of Sidomulyo village, they contribute their thoughts, opinions, physical energy and money.

In subsequent developments, the community built supporting facilities, such as directions, parking lots for two and four-wheeled vehicles, prayer rooms, toilets, and public bathrooms. Food stalls, and snack and drink stalls, ticket sales boxes. Construction of facilities such as parking is established on land owned by residents, by way of lease, based on income from parking, this land is allowed to build several permanent buildings such as the secretariat office of Pokdarwis Sidomulyo, and parking areas.

The community takes advantage of the existence of tourism, with several businesses including: opening food stalls and stalls selling snacks and drinks, fruits, especially salak fruit, selling souvenirs, homestays by utilizing residential houses, making public toilets and bathrooms, motorcycle taxis, porter, tour guide. The business or work carried out by residents is a new source of income for residents. Residents who have education limited to elementary school, work as village cleaners, and tourist attractions, or maintain tourist attractions. While those with high school education, working at the Pokdarwis secretariat, as admin, and selling entrance tickets.

Maintenance costs, daily operations, and paying employees, tourism managers, getting income from entrance tickets and parking tickets, fees from traders, donations from homestay owners. All existing sources of income go to the manager's treasury which is managed by Pokdarwis and the Village Commercial Bank (BUMDES) in Sidomulyo Village, with the principles of transparency, accountability, equality.

Tumpak Sewu Waterfall tourism activities make the community more aware of the natural potential and conditions of the surrounding environment, as a holistic tourist attraction. In addition, the community also maintains the cleanliness of the surrounding environment by cleaning the village, and tourist spots every day, the community also protects the environment by recycling plastic waste into handicrafts which are sold to visitors as souvenirs. The number of tourist visits has the potential to continue to increase, requiring restrictions on the number of tourists who descend near the Waterfall object, as well as Goa Drops must be limited according to carrying capacity, this is to prevent ecosystem damage, in the form of breaking and death of vegetation, due to being stepped on, loss of wild animals around waterfalls and Goa, because of the threat of large numbers of humans. Restrictions on the presence of tourists, in the Waterfall area, and Goa will have an impact on reducing food plastic waste and plastic bottles. The tourism object manager must make rules regarding the procedures for making visits, in the form of Standard Operating Procedures.

CONCLUSION

Tumpak Sewu Waterfall and Goa Tetes are tourism objects managed by a community organization whose members are residents of Sidomulyo Village, called the Tourism Awareness Group (Pokdarwis). Sidomulyo Village community in particular and the surrounding community in general. The people of Sidomulyo Village are directly involved in management, as administrative staff, as well as parking attendants, and handle cleanliness and security. Residents of Sidomulyo Village, who have a business sense, create businesses, including: homestays, food stalls, and snacks and drinks, showers and toilets for tourists. the preservation of the ecosystem in Tumpak Sewu Waterfall and Goa Tetes will make it a sustainable tourist destination.

  1. ASEAN Community Based Tourism Standard. (2016). Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat. Constituante Number 10 of (2009) concerning Tourism. Available at online at: https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/
  2. Castro, C., & Ferreira. F.A., (2019). Entrepreneurs Self-Perception of Skills in Rural. European Journal of Tourism Research, 21, 50-68.
  3. Bessette, G., (2004) Involving the community: A guide to participatory development communication. Penang: International Development Research Centre.
  4. Martha. H., (2008). Ecotourism and sustainable development who owns paradise Martha Honey. 2nd ed. Washington DC ISLAND PRESS is a trademark of the Center for Resource Economics.
  5. Instruction of the President of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2005 concerning Policies for Development of Culture and Tourism. Available online at: https://jdih.kemenparekraf.go.id/
  6. Wood, M.E., (2002) Ecotourism Principles, Practices & Policies for Sustainability. Burlington, VT 05402: UNEP. The International Ecotourism Society.
  7. Regional Regulation of Lumajang Regency Number 2 of 2013 concerning Spatial Planning of Lumajang Regency of 2012 -2032. Available online at: http://ditjenpp.kemenkumham.go.id/
  8. Lumajang Regency Regional Regulation Number: 5, 2018, Regarding: Master Plan for Tourism Development of Lumajang Regency 2018-2033. Available online at: https://jdih.lumajangkab.go.id/file
  9. GoĢˆssling, S., & Hall, C.M., (2006) Ecological, social, economic and political interrelationships. Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016: Routledge